Friday, October 23, 2020
Time: 9:30 – 12:00 AM
IBC 20-67: Route 29/195 EB Ramp to Route 295 SB Emergency Repair
Eli Lambert, P.E., George Zimmer, Alexandra Beyer, Matthew Lunemann, P.E., WSP USA, Inc., Lawrenceville, New Jersey; Pankesh Patel, P.E., New Jersey Department of Transportation, Trenton, New Jersey
In 2018, inspectors noticed a 10’-long, wide vertical crack in a cylinder pile on the ramp connecting Interstates 195-EB and 295-SB in Hamilton, New Jersey, warranting a temporary ramp closure. A temporary jacket was installed allowing traffic to be returned to the structure. The permanent repair was detailed utilizing temporary shoring towers supported on micropile foundations and included removing unknown material inside the pile and providing stainless steel reinforcing encapsulated within a fiberglass grouted jacket.
IBC 20-68: Execution of a Large-Scale Design-Phase Pile Test Program for the I-480 Valley View Bridge
Benjamin White, GRL Engineers, Inc., Solon, OH; Charles Winter, Jacobs, Milwaukee, WI
An extensive design-phase test pile program for the new I-480 Valley View Bridge Project near Cleveland, OH was performed with the explicit purpose of measuring long-term set-up and estimating pile lengths for use in structural design and subsequent construction. The program consisted of installing 24 test piles, each 18-inch-diameter closed-ended pipes, to depths ranging between 90 and 225 feet, extending well into glacial and post-glacial silts and clays in the Cuyahoga River Valley. Short-term (1-7 day and long-term (30+ day) restrikes were conducted, with the long-term restrikes utilizing a drop hammer to ensure pile mobilization. Three static loading tests were performed, each internally instrumented with strain-gages to evaluate the shaft resistance distribution. Piling exhibited considerable set-up, with 30-day restrike events showing set-up between 160 and 700 percent of end-of-initial-drive capacity, with magnitudes between 400 and 1400 kips. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of collecting and interpreting the wealth of dynamic data and static loading test data from the program. Characteristics of pile behavior and development of pile set-up in the glacial and post-glacial fine-grained soils are described, as are observations of pile set-up as a function of driven pile length and elapsed time. Key words: instrumented static load test, pile set-up, drop-hammer restrikes, CAPWAP analyses
IBC 20-69: Directionality of Soil Resistance for Design-Oriented Lateral Load Analysis of Bridge Piers
Michael Davidson, Gary Consolazio, and Henry Bollmann, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL ; Jeffrey Svatora, HDR
A common component of bridge design is to ensure that adequate strength is available for bridge piers to resist lateral loads. However, depending on the orientations of piers within a given bridge, design requirements may lead to scenarios where lateral loads must be considered at (horizontal) orientations that deviate from transverse and longitudinal directions of the bridge pier foundations. For example, if a bridge pier—with underlying pile group—possesses a skew angle relative to the overlying superstructure, then resultants of horizontal bearing reactions atop the pier may induce motions in the underlying bridge pier foundation that do not align (in plan-view) with the rows of piles. When using the beam on nonlinear Winkler foundation (BNWF) approach to model such scenarios, it is important to account for “directionality” in the distributions of nonlinear lateral soil-resistance springs (i.e., the p-y springs).
Directionality signifies that, throughout embedded portions of the bridge pier model, the orientations of p-y springs align with the respective (resultant) orientations of horizontal motions. If directionality is excluded from the analysis, it may lead to differences in computed response up to 20% in extreme cases. In the following, the benefits of accounting for directionality in modeling lateral soil-structure interaction behaviors are investigated. Using design- oriented analysis software, lateral loadings across a range of orientations are analyzed for models of single-pile and pile-group configurations. Based on the configurations analyzed, conditions are identified where accounting for directionality are of particular importance. In addition, considerations for group effects (e.g., p-multipliers) are presented.
IBC 20-70: Electrochemical Chloride Extraction for Substructure Preservation – Milltown Road over US-1
Melissa Mertes, Rama Krishnagiri, P.E. and Tharmaraja Rishindran, P.E., WSP USA, Lawrenceville, NJ
The 60-year old Milltown Road bridge spans over US-1, one of the one of the most congested roadways in NJ. The bridge has a horizontally curved and skewed deck and a steel multi-girder superstructure supported on full height abutments and a central multi-column pier. Rehabilitation efforts include full superstructure replacement, improvements to the vertical clearance over US-1 and substructure rehabilitation. A service life analysis of the substructure was required in support of preservation. Concrete core sampling/material testing was performed to support preservation in lieu of full replacement. The types of Material testing that were selected focused on the corrosion rate of reinforcement and detection of progressive deterioration mechanisms including delayed ettringite formation, freeze-thaw damage and alkali-silica reactions (ASR). Core locations were chosen carefully to encompass both good condition concrete and areas of deterioration with high levels of exposure to deicing salts. GPR was used to verify concrete cover to reinforcement. Chloride concentrations were modeled as a function of depth and time to estimate when the threshold for corrosion initiation would be exceeded. Results indicated high levels of chloride in concrete samples taken near the deck joints. However, analysis supported preservation of the substructure and rehabilitation utilizing Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) to reduce chloride levels and extend the remaining service life. This one-time treatment reduces chloride, and increases the reinforcement pH, with no maintenance. For this two-span bridge, preservation in addition to construction cost, also reduces construction time by 9-months, while minimizing impacts to traffic movement in a congested corridor.
IBC 20-71: Underwater Rehabilitation of the SR 141 (Newport Viaduct) Piers 2 and 3 Foundations
John Ward IV, Daniel Radle, James Bellenoit, and Neil Shemo, AECOM, Mechanicsburg, PA
The SR 141 Bridge (Newport Viaduct) located in Newport, Delaware, is a 19-span bridge which carries SR 141 over the Christina River, Amtrak Railroad, State Route 4 and local roads. The structure, originally constructed in 1972, consists of a welded composite tub girder superstructure founded on reinforced concrete piers supported by pile foundations. Two of the substructure units, Piers 2 and 3, are located within the Christina River and are supported on a total of 120 unbraced steel H-piles which are exposed to brackish water. The Delaware Department of Transportation (DelDOT) tasked AECOM with developing a rehabilitation approach for the existing underwater foundations. The rehabilitation approach included repairing several existing piles which were observed to have localized moderate deterioration, providing a unique system to prevent further corrosion to the global pile groups, and mitigating the existing scour condition. In developing the rehabilitation approach, industry standard processes, such as concrete jackets were not feasible, as the tidal water elevation is located at or above the top of pile cap and environmental impacts and site constraints restricted the installation of a cofferdam. This paper will discuss the process of developing the rehabilitation and repair system for the Pier 2 and Pier 3 foundations, highlight the decision-making process that accompanied the innovative approach and present lessons learned from the construction which is currently underway.
W08: Load Testing
Bridge and Tunnel 24/7 Structural Health Monitoring with Acoustic Emission
Gordon Schneider, Vallen Systems GmbH / Acoustic Technology Group, Grandville, MI
Time: 8:00 AM – 12:00 Noon
The focus is the AE technology and it’s capability and limitations with regard to 24/7 Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of large steel and concrete bridge and tunnel structures. It will include case studies on concrete pre/post tension bridge structures, tendon assessment, steel fabricated bridges, and concrete tunnels.
Installation, Monitoring and Analysis of Embedded Data Collectors for Foundations and Superstructures
Aneesh Goly, SMART STRUCTURES, Rivera Beach, FL
Time: 8:00 AM – 12:00 Noon
Modules within this short course will teach techniques used to install embedded data collectors in various structural elements, the use of different types of monitoring systems for different phases of the construction process, and the analysis of the data obtained from the embedded data collector. Other modules will include discussions on: the uses of the data acquired, cloud-based data review, setting cloud-based thresholds and stakeholder notifications, and selection of the right sensor for the job. These learning objectives will be achieved with using both lectures and hands-on use of the equipment, software and real-world data. In short, the primary learning objective is to teach the attendees how to make their infrastructure more sustainable and resilient.
W16: Bridge Protective Coatings
Tony Serdenes, Frank Slezak, and Jared Rigo, Gannett Fleming, Inc., Baltimore, MD
Time: 10:00 AM – 12:00 Noon
Gannett Fleming will present a workshop on protective coatings for bridge maintenance. This workshop is an introduction to bridge painting and the elements involved. The workshop will cover the evaluation, design, inspection during the construction phase and follow up maintenance considerations. Also included will be where to find industry standard guidelines. The goal of this workshop will be to have an interactive discussion between the presenters and those in attendance about achieving a successful project.