Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania


337 Fourth Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15222

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Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Technical Sessions

Preservation, Part 1

Time: 9:00 a.m.-12:00 Noon
Room: Baltimore 3/4/5
Session Chair: Myint Lwin, P.E., S.E., Consultant, Olympia, WA

Bridge owners and engineers from around the world are facing an aging bridge population and shortage of funds for bridge replacement.  An effective bridge preservation program, which includes preventive maintenance strategies and rehabilitation techniques, is of utmost importance for extending the useful life of bridges while avoiding costly replacement. Presenters in this session will address the maintenance and rehabilitation strategies and practices successfully used in historic bridges, older arches, trusses, expressways, masonry structures and others.

IBC 18-66: Bridge Replacement and Abutment Rehabilitation on the Vine St. Expressway from 22nd to 18th Streets in Philadelphia, PA
David Whitmore, Vector Corrosion Technologies; Henry Berman, P.E., Ph.D., Pennsylvania DOT, King of Prussia, PA

This bridge replacement and abutment rehabilitation project was completed on seven bridges which span across the western end of the Vine Expressway from 22nd to 18th Streets. The bridge work for this project included the replacement of the existing two-span, noncomposite, pre-stressed concrete adjacent box beam superstructures with single span superstructures while maintaining and retrofitting the existing reinforced concrete abutments. The bridge superstructures were replaced and the highly chloride contaminated reinforced concrete abutments, which had widespread concrete damage and active reinforcing steel corrosion, were rehabilitated. Field corrosion evaluation testing of the substructures was done to ensure that the service life of the substructures could be increased to match the desired service life of the new superstructures. Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) was selected as the most appropriate long term repair solution as it facilitated the desired project schedule by allowing the existing abutments to be rehabilitated and re-used for the new superstructures. Our technical paper will discuss the investigation, rehabilitation and repair of the existing abutments using the ECE process as it progressed from initial concept to construction.

IBC 18-67: Historic Truss Rehabilitation: The Max and Min
William Koller, P.E. and Ken Sanoski, P.E., Pennsylvania DOT, Oil City, PA

This paper details a truss that was totally rehabilitated for a 100-year life (Max) and one that was rehabilitated to correct deficiencies that made it poor – a minimal rehabilitation (Min). Both are unique in that the maximum rehabilitation included disassembling the truss and galvanizing the members and the minimal rehabilitation consisted of abutment reinforcement and floorbeam repairs only. There are many lessons learned from the dismantling, cleaning, galvanizing and reassembling the truss.

IBC 18-68: Longfellow Bridge Rehabilitation
Mark Ennis, STV Incorporated, Boston, MA; Michael Drew, Massachusetts DOT, Boston, MA; Robert Collari, J.F. White Contracting Company, Cambridge, MA

The Longfellow Bridge is a well-known Boston landmark. The structure, which carries both roadway traffic and rail, is being rehabilitated through a $255m Design Build Contract. The presentation will be given by representatives of MassDOT, the Contractor and Designer. The presentation will address efforts made to preserve the historic character of the bridge, seismic upgrades, and the staging of the work to facilitate Red Line rail operations.

IBC 18-69: Tale of Two Arches
William Koller and Matthew Antrilli, Pennsylvania DOT, Oil City, PA

PennDOT has a unique type of bridge located in NW Pennsylvania. This bridge type was built in the transition period from trusses to multi-girder bridges for medium spans. They were built by the same engineer, both span Oil Creek and were innovative bridge types for the period – bowstring or tied-arch. The history and rehabilitation of these two sister bridges is detailed in this paper along with several innovations to upgrade the bridges.

IBC 18-70: Frankford Avenue Bridge: Rehabilitation of the Oldest Bridge in the United States
Margaret Sherman, P.E., TranSystems, Philadelphia, PA; Henry Berman, Ph.D., P.E. and Monica Harrower, Pennsylvania DOT, King of Prussia, PA

The Frankford Avenue Bridge, built in 1697, is the oldest continuously-used roadway bridge in the United States. It is a stone masonry arch bridge over Pennypack Creek in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The paper will discuss the inspection, analysis and rehabilitation of the bridge, as well as identify the character defining features which make it historic. Sympathetic means to reconstruct stone masonry and rebuild the cantilevered sidewalks will be discussed.


Instrumentation/Load Testing

Time: 9:00 a.m.-12:00 Noon
Room: Annapolis 1/2/3
Session Chair: Ray Hartle, P.E., GAI Consultants, Inc., Cranberry Township, PA

This session provides a cross section of examples showcasing current practices in evaluating actual bridge member forces in the interest of maximizing service performance and improving asset management.  Your understanding of NDE will be broadened with a review of Phased Array UT (PAUT) inspection of welds and an innovative study of Thermoelastic Stress Analysis of fatigue prone details.  State-of-the-art instrumentation and load testing will be highlighted with presentations of SHM on the Tappan Zee Bridge and Delaware’s Indian River Inlet Bridge, and the systematic destruction and strain monitoring of a decommissioned slab-on-steel beam bridge.

IBC 18-71: Structural Health Monitoring System for the New Tappan Zee Bridge
Thomas Weinman, Geocomp, Buffalo Grove, IL; Rob Nyren and Kris Armstrong, Geocomp, Acton, MA

A comprehensive Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS) can aid in focusing long-term maintenance that enhances the overall asset management program for the structure. Of primary importance is the management and ready-review of the data collected for timely decisions. This presentation will provide an overview of how this data is processed and culled to enable ready review of data for timely decisions, using the Tappan Zee Bridge as a case study.

IBC 18-72: Structural Health Monitoring of Delaware’s Indian River Inlet Bridge
Harry Shenton, Michael Chajes, P.E., Hadi Al-Khateeb, and Gary Wenczel, University of Delaware, Newark, DE; Jason Arndt, Delaware DOT, Dover, DE

Delaware’s Indian River Inlet Bridge is a 533-meter long cable stayed bridge that was completed in 2012. The University of Delaware, working with DelDOT and the design-build team of AECOM and Skanska, designed and installed a comprehensive structural health monitoring (SHM) system on the bridge during construction. The system continuously monitors the bridge’s performance and this paper provides an overview of the SHM system and highlights results from the first five years of service.

IBC 18-73: Lessons Learned From Destructive Tests of a Slab-On-Steel Girder Bridge
Asmaa Abo Alouk, Jennifer McConnell, Michael Chajes, and Harry Shenton, University of Delaware, Newark, DE; Brent Van Lith, Delaware River and Bay Authority, New Castle, DE

The paper will describe the results of destructive load tests of a bridge owned by the Delaware River and Bay Authority. Tests of the 60 year old, slab-on-steel-girder bridge, which carried a high volume of traffic throughout its life will provide a unique opportunity to (1) measure the actual capacity of a common bridge that was designed according to established standards, and (2) observe the behavior of the bridge to induced damage.

IBC 18-74: Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing for Nondestructive Evaluation of Welded Orthotropic Steel Box Girders of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge
Jie Sun, Min Zhao, and Wen Sun, Jiangsu Fasten Material Analysis & Testing Co., Ltd., Jiangyin, Jiangsu, China; Qiang Jing, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge Administration, China

Dr. Edward Zhou, P.E., AECOM, will present this paper.

Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) has advantages over the conventional single-beam ultrasonic testing (UT) method as a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting nonvisible defects in welds or steel plates. This paper discusses application of PAUT for NDE of welded orthotropic steel box girders during construction of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge in China. PAUT procedures and acceptance standards were established. Test results demonstrated PAUT to be a reliable NDE method for ensuring steel fabrication quality.

IBC 18-75: Thermoelastic Stress Analysis of Fatigue Prone Details
Steven Chase, University of Virginia, Palmyra, VA; Chad Anderson, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; Paul Fuchs, Thermastare, Leesburg, VA

A novel approach for in-situ evaluation of stress fields in the vicinity of fatigue prone details on highway bridges has been developed using a low cost micro-bolometer thermal imager. and a battery powered field computer. The approach is based on the well proven theory of thermoelasticity. Thermoelasticity is the generation of temperature changes in matter due to elastic strain. The theory and the results of laboratory and field testing are presented.



Time: 9:00 a.m.-12:00 Noon
Room: Woodrow Wilson A
Session Chair: Rex Pearce, P.E., Virginia DOT, Staunton, VA

Bridge foundations must dig deep and this IBC session explores best design / construction practices in this current age of ever-increasing load conditions, traffic counts, and environmental constraints countered by reduced construction time frames and funding resources.  Innovation, efficiency, advanced technology and methods have never been more crucial. Bridge foundation planning, design and sustainability topics include; Caissons, Geotechnical Challenges, Seismic design, Re-purposed Foundations, Substructure Analysis and Design, Accelerated Bridge Construction and FHWA Foundation Characterization Program.

IBC 18-76: Herrington Lake Bridge – Lowering of a 200-ft Caisson
Josh Crain, P.E., S.E. and David Rogowski, P.E., Genesis Structures, Inc., Kansas City, MO; Doug VanSlambrook, Walsh Construction, Irving, TX; Kevin Buch, P.E., Walsh Construction, Harrodsburg, KY

Construction of an 830-ft, three-span bridge over Herrington Lake in central Kentucky presented a unique set of engineering and construction challenges. One challenge was the selection of means and methods for erection of 350-ft plate girder spans without falsework in the 700-ft wide lake. The second challenge was developing a method of construction of the center pier, located in the deepest part of the popular recreational lake where depths exceed 200 feet.

IBC 18-77: New Champlain Bridge – Geotechnical Challenges and Solutions
Thaleia Travasarou and Jose Ugalde, Fugro, Walnut Creek, CA

The new St. Lawrence River Champlain bridge is 3.4 km long featuring 38 approach spans and a 500-meter cable-stayed main span. Geotechnical design challenges include optimizing the main span tower drilled shaft foundations design using site-specific foundation testing, designing the main span tower for liquefaction and vessel impact, design of a permanent berm against liquefaction demands. Construction quality assurance challenges included remote observation and verification of submerged marine excavations during foundation construction.

IBC 18-78: Reuse of Foundations of Existing Bridges
Anil Agrawal and Ehssan Hoomaan, The City College of New York, New York, NY; Nathan Davis and Masoud Sanayei, Tufts University, Medford, MA; Frank Jalinoos, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA

Reuse of foundations of existing bridges during reconstruction or major rehabilitation of bridges can result in major savings in costs and time. The best practice manual on bridge foundation reuse addresses critical issues encountered during decision-making on foundation reuse, assessment of existing foundations for structural integrity, durability and load carrying capacity, repair and strengthening of foundations; and design of new foundations for potential future reuse. The manual includes case examples showing detailed of reuse process.

IBC 18-79: CSVT River Bridge – Advanced Substructure Analysis and Design
Ryan Jenkins, Kyle Smiach, and Ahmad Ahmadi, SAI Consulting Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA

The CSVT River Bridge in Pennsylvania is a six-lane, 15-span, 7/8-mile-long, multi-girder structure comprised of three independent units. The bridge features tall, slender piers with significantly varying stiffness and consecutively fixed bearings. To optimize the design and capture realistic behavior, system substructure interaction was modeled using second-order analyses with non-linear material properties. In addition, a seismic analysis was performed to optimize the bearings, and strut-and-tie analyses were performed on certain substructure elements.

IBC 18-80: Prefabricated Superstructure Units and other ABC Methods for Bridge Replacement: NJDOT Route 18 over Route 1
Gregory Ricks, P.E., and Holtisa Jovani, HNTB, Parsippany, NJ

This superstructure replacement utilized ABC techniques during 10 weekends of condensed construction, including concrete moveable barrier curb, prefabricated superstructure units, polyester polymer concrete deck closure pours, precast concrete approach slab panels, and various ABC techniques for temporary deck support, bearing installation, and deck joint installation. These techniques allowed for minimal disruption at the congested NJ Route 18 over Route 1 interchange (120,000 VPD). The widened substructure was supported on micropiles due to work zone constraints.


Construction Engineering Using Advanced Methods

Time: 9:00 a.m.-12:00 Noon
Room: Woodrow Wilson B/C/D
Session Chair: John Dietrick, P.E., S.E., Michael Baker International, Cleveland, OH

Engineers and contractors are increasingly utilizing advanced techniques to facilitate the improved construction, demolition and repair of bridges. In this session, our presenters will demonstrate how innovative methods like heat strengthening and state-of-the art computer modeling have provided great value to the construction of major bridges around the world.  This session will give particular emphasis to the increased use of 3D computer modeling and the advances it promises to provide to bridge designers and contractors.

IBC 18-81: Erection Engineering for the Eastbound Cable-Stayed Spans of the Kosciuszko Bridge
Allison Halpern, P.E., Ph.D., O. Murat Hamutcuoglu, and John Bryson, HNTB Corporation, New York, NY

HNTB served as the Erection Engineer of the eastbound cable-stayed spans constructed during Phase I of the Kosciuszko Bridge Replacement Project. A 3D finite element model was developed to perform staged construction analyses; the model was continually calibrated to reflect changes in construction sequence and load placement by using survey data to capture as-built geometry and stress conditions. Analysis results informed stay cable installation forces and composite stay cable adjustments to provide geometry control measures.

IBC 18-82: Construction of the Mockingbird Pedestrian Bridge
Steve Eads, Jr. P.E., John Boschert, and Dave Byers, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO; Mark Gaines and Evan McCoppin, Rebcon Inc, Dallas, TX

The Mockingbird Pedestrian Bridge is a four-span, cable-stayed pedestrian bridge carrying the Katy Trail pedestrian path over Mockingbird Lane in Dallas, Texas. Located in a congested urban setting adjacent to a popular shopping center and directly above the Dallas Area Rapid Transit line, this unique structure was erected using a carefully planned sequence that minimized the impact on the transit structures below, while maintaining public access during construction.

IBC 18-83: Demolition of the Broadway Bridge over the Arkansas River
Ben Pendergrass, P.E., Ph.D., and John Boschert, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO; Andy Shorten, Greg Bair Track Hoe, Overland Park, KS

This paper details the demolition of the 93-year-old Broadway Bridge over the Arkansas River. The bridge comprised of 37 concrete-girder spans, three concrete-arch spans, and a single steel-arch span. Demolition activities occurred simultaneously with new construction over a short duration, requiring multiple machines to operate on the bridge at once for deck and girder removal. Following deck removal, explosive demolition techniques were utilized for removal of the concrete arch spans and steel arch span.

IBC 18-84: Johnson Drive over I-435 Emergency Bridge Repairs
Samantha Kevern, P.E., S.E., HNTB Corporation, Kansas City, MO; Don Whisler, Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka, KS

On April 10th, 2016, a SUV lost control and struck a steel pier column supporting the Johnson Drive bridge. The vehicle struck a column 10 feet above the bearing, ripping the bearing apart and causing 5.13 feet of displacement. Heat straightening was used to repair the column and connecting elements. This presentation details the damage the bridge sustained, describes the repair process, and explains the engineering required to return the bridge to its original function.

IBC 18-85: Digital Submittal – What We Want 3D Modeling to do for the Bridge Industry
Thomas Cooper, WSP, Denver, CO; Matti-Esko Järvenpää, WSP FINLAND, Helsinki, Finland

In the U.S., development of BIM models for use in bridge design has been proceeding at a plodding pace. In this paper, the practice, process, outcomes and short-falls of current projects where BIM has been used outside the U.S. to develop electronic deliverables will be examined through the lenses of the changes required in project team organization and the technical challenges and benefits of designing a bridge using 3D models.



W-5: Accelerated Bridge Construction Technology Applied in the Seismic Region

Time: 8:00 a.m. – 12:00 Noon
Room: Magnolia 1

This workshop provides an opportunity for exchange of the latest information in research and implementation of ABC in seismic regions. Devising connections that can accommodate inelastic cyclic deformations and are readily constructible is the primary challenge for ABC in seismic regions. Ductile behavior is desirable under earthquake loadings for both the longitudinal and transverse directions of the bridge. The work- shop demonstrates technologies for delivering bridge construction projects in weeks, rather than months, for reducing congestion, improving safety and increasing the quality of highway bridges in seismic regions.

Presenter: Phillip Yen, International Association of Bridge Earthquake Engineering, Centreville, VA; Pinar Okumus, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY; Dr. Atorod Azizinamini, Florida International University, Miami, FL; Alireza Mohebbi, TFHRC/FHWA, McLean, VA