Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania


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Pittsburgh, PA 15222

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Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Technical Sessions

Preservation, Part 2

Time: 2:00-5:00 p.m.
Room: Baltimore 3/4/5
Session Chair: Rachel Stiffler, Vector Corrosion Technologies, McMurray, PA

The papers presented in this session include discussions on extending service life for concrete and steel bridge structures. Methods used are accelerated bridge construction, using first ever completed pier precasting, along with completing SSI (soil structure interaction) using analytical processes to do pier redesign. These projects used concrete testing of the structures, corrosion evaluation, which will also be discussed, along with concrete sampling, to determine the needs. Steel structure discussions will include fatigue prone delta frame repairs along with eliminating deck joints and safety upgrades.

IBC 18-86: Seismic Rehabilitation of The Pulaski Skyway: an Engineering Challenge
Ruben Gajer, P.E., Matt Tchorz, and Prabhakar Casuba, Arora and Associates, P.C., New York, NY; Glenn Deppert, Reilly Thompson, and Colleen O’Neil, Arora and Associates, P.C., Bethlehem, PA

The Rehabilitation of the Pulaski Skyway calls for independent concrete shells cast around the existing pier columns. The shells will be supported on deep foundations (drilled shafts and/or micropiles), built next to the remaining concrete caissons. New reinforced concrete caps will span over the existing caissons and around the existing columns. Soil-Structure-Interaction analysis demonstrated the influence of kinematic effects on the seismic response and the subsequent design of piers, foundations, and rehabilitation of the trusses.

IBC 18-87: Restoring History: The Beaverkill Covered Bridge
Andrew Schwingel, EIT, Erdman Anthony, Rochester, NY

In 2012, Erdman Anthony was selected by the New York State Department of Transportation to design the rehabilitation of the 153-year-old Town lattice truss Beaverkill Covered Bridge. The project included timber rehabilitation, stone abutment regeneration and complex hydraulic challenges. This structure represents the importance of infrastructure to the surrounding community and the powerful influences the public can have on the rehabilitation of historic structures. The bridge was completed and opened to traffic in June 2017.

IBC 18-88: Developing a Corrosion Mitigation Strategy for Service Life Extension Hampton Roads & Bridge Tunnel – Approach Bridges
Ali Akbar Sohanghpurwala, CONCORR, Inc., Sterling, VA; Adam Matteo, P.E., Virginia DOT, Richmond, VA; Rex Gilley, P.E., WSP, Virginia Beach, VA

The Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) facility carries I-64 traffic across the navigational channel from Hampton Roads to Willoughby, Virginia. Originally constructed in 1957 it consisted of two approach bridge structures, one on the north and one on the south with a tunnel in between. Later in 1974, another two approach bridges and tunnel were added. The old structure carries westbound traffic, whereas, the newer structure carries eastbound traffic. The HRBT is considered the most vital road infrastructure in the State of Virginia. Its average daily traffic (ADT) is reported to be 80,000 and peaks during the tourist season to 100,000.The bridge structures are exposed to an extreme marine environment and almost of reinforced concrete elements are exhibiting corrosion induced damage. An in-depth corrosion condition evaluation of these structures was conducted. Based on the findings a strategy to maintain and extend the service life of these bridges for another 30 to 50 years is been developed. The condition evaluation utilized newer testing protocols, service life modeling, and life cycle cost analysis to identify optimal solutions for repair and rehabilitation. The results of the condition evaluation and the strategy developed are discussed.

IBC 18-89: Interstate Delta Frames: Structural Steel Retrofit and Restoration to Essentially Infinite Fatigue – Part II Structural Response under Service Loading Condition and Rehabilitation Monitoring
Loai El-Gazairly, P.E., Ph.D., Whitman, Requardt and Associates, Richmond, VA; Rex Pearce, Virginia DOT, Staunton, VA

The delta frame bridges that carry I-64 over the Maury River within VDOT, Staunton District were constructed in the mid-1970s and have experienced fatigue cracking that caused deficiency in the bridges inventory rating. A structural retrofit was designed and rehabilitation is completed for infinite fatigue life. A thermo-elastic stress analysis system (companion paper) is used to scrutinize fatigue-prone locations. Conclusions are attained for the adequacy of the retrofit procedure and the current structural response.

IBC 18-90: Rehabilitation of the SR 0837-A13 Glenwood Interchange
Benjamin Allis, GAI Consultants, Inc., Homestead, PA

The SR 0837-A13 Glenwood Interchange Rehabilitation is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and is owned by PennDOT District 11-0. GAI Consultants performed an in-depth hands-on inspection and final design to rehabilitate four interconnected steel bridges. We employed strategies to extend the service life of the structures while also minimizing future maintenance and inspection costs. Some of these strategies included joint eliminations, fracture critical pier cap replacements, bearing replacements, and safety feature upgrades throughout the interchange.


Rail/Transit, Part 2

Time: 2:00-5:00 p.m.
Room: Annapolis 1/2/3
Session Chair:  Carl Angeloff, P.E., MSCE, Con-Serv Inc., Aliquippa, PA

The re-birth of a global rail infrastructure continues to expand opportunities for Designers, Contractors  and Owners of transit and freight hauling systems. This session provides innovative design solutions for steel and concrete arch railroad bridges. In active earthquake regions, seismic design considerations and fortification measures, are utilized to evaluate structural seismic performance. Lastly, improving the fatigue life estimations of older riveted railroad bridges are examined. Most of these bridges were not explicitly designed against fatigue, but are now asked to carry heavier service loads.

IBC 18-91: Design of the New Portageville Railroad Bridge
Daniel Irwin, P.E., and Kevin Johns, Modjeski and Masters, Inc., Mechanicsburg, PA

The Portageville Railroad Bridge is a vital link for Norfolk Southern in New York. The existing structure was at the end of its useful life, requiring replacement. The new bridge consists of a 483-ft 2-hinged spandrel-braced arch flanked by girder spans.Spandrel-braced arches are well-suited for railroad loading, but this structure type is rarely viable, making the new bridge unique in modern history. The solutions to overcome the design challenges for this structure are presented.

IBC 18-92: Working Out of a Corner: Route 5 Bridge Replacement
Eric Thornton and Scott Fisher, Virginia DOT, Midlothian, VA

The engineering, communication, and coordination strategies used during the development and construction of the historical Route 5 Bridge in Richmond, Virginia can be employed by leadership teams to successfully complete even the most complicated projects. The historical nature, strict timeframes, and restrictive project site generated strategic design and replacement techniques. Working around, over, and under railroads, utilities, and adjacent projects, the team was able to work out of a corner and meet the unique challenges.

IBC 18-93: The Staggered Arch Bridge for California High Speed Rail Over State Route 99 Highway (SR99)
Shaoyun Sun, P.E., Ph.D., Eddie He, Kishor Patel, and Pam Yuen, Parsons, Chicago, IL

A staggered arch bridge with total length of 437 ft, have been designed for the new California high speed railway line over the State Route 99 highway. The superstructure includes two stand-alone vertical hanger arch planes with horizontal floor system spanning between them. Each arch plane consists a 3-span continues prestressed concrete edge tie girder and two concrete arch ribs on top of the two longer spans. Lead-rubber Isolation bearings with fuse assembly were selected to meet the stringent displacement limitation required for track serviceability and the California seismic ductility design requirement.

IBC 18-94: Seismic Design of a Long-Span Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Through- Arch Railway Bridge
Shengyong Dai, Huawan Hu, Kejian Chen, and Jianfeng Chen, China Rail Way Eryuan Engineering Group Co., Chengdu, Sichuan, China

The seismic design of a 430m span concrete-filled steel tube half-through arch railway bridge Using the capacity protected member design method to shrink secondary members and protect primary members; Using dampers and isolated bearings to reduce bridge earthquake responses. The bridge analysis used the finite element method in combination with a non-linear time history method to evaluate the structural seismic performance with various seismic fortification measures.

IBC 18-95: Withdrawn


Design/Analysis, Part 2

Time: 2:00-5:00 p.m.
Room: Woodrow Wilson A
Session Chair: Ken Wright, P.E., HDR Engineering, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA

This session highlights practical design innovations – from a VE redesign that incorporated materials already ordered for the original bridge design, to using segmental construction on a new lift bridge, to a bridge carrying an LNG pipeline subjected to hurricanes, to demonstrating how strut and tie modeling was used to design critical knuckle details on a tied arch structure, to discussion of simplified rebar details in acute corners of the deck for skewed bridges.

IBC 18-96: Specialized Bridge Structure for Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Project Located on the Hurricane Prone Gulf Coast
Michael Whitney, Ph.D., P.E. and Jason Richards, P.E., Bechtel Corporation, Houston, TX; J. Marcus Cherundolo, P.E., Bechtel, Reston, Virginia

The Corpus Christi Liquefaction project on the Texas coast will liquefy natural gas for export. To move LNG from the plant to the ships, and transport equipment and personnel to the loading berths, two bridges are under construction. The designs incorporate standard concrete girder bridge principles, adapted for the specialized purpose. These bridges are designed for hurricane conditions, heavy construction loading, and fluid “hammer” loads applied by moving LNG through 30 inch diameter pipes.

IBC 18-97: A Simplified Reinforcement Detail for the Deck Acute Corner in Skewed Bridges
Jodi Greene, E.I.T. and Masoud Mehr, Ph.D., P.E., WSP, Glastonbury, CT; Arash Zaghi, PH.D., P.E., S.E., and Sarira Motaref, Ph.D., P.E., University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT; Michael Culmo, P.E., CME Associates, East Hartford, CT

In modern transportation projects, the demand for skewed bridges is increasing. The current reinforcement detail for the acute corner of decks is insufficient due to short development lengths. Through this study, a modified reinforcing detail is proposed. Follow up analyses demonstrated that the proposed detail significantly improves the efficiency of the reinforcement. This practical detail minimizes cost and labor for deck construction at acute corners, yet improves the structural performance of the slab.

IBC 18-98: Value Engineering Redesign of the Replacement of the City Island Road Bridge over Eastchester Bay
Greg Fisher, P.E., and Mohammad Shams, Henningson, Durham & Richardson Architecture and Engineering, P.C., New York, NY; Cagri Ozgur, Henningson, Durham & Richardson Architecture and Engineering, P.C., Albany, NY

Following community concerns after the start of the project, HDR redesigned the replacement of the City Island Road Bridge (CIB) under value engineering (VE) provisions. This paper will present the challenges/solutions regarding the hydrodynamic modeling/scour analysis, superstructure/substructure design and the 3D FEA steel erection analyses. It will also provide insight on how the designer and contractor worked in a design-build manner to deliver a VE redesign that met the owner’s requirements.

IBC 18-99: Application of Strut and Tie Modeling to the Design of Concrete Arch-Rib and Tie-Girder Intersections
Lawrence Rolwes, Jr., HNTB Corporation, St. Louis, MO; Natalie McCombs and Jeremy McNutt, HNTB Corporation, Kansas City, MO

A strut and tie modeling approach was developed for the design of concrete arch-rib and tie-girder intersections (knuckles) where normal beam theory approaches are not applicable. The complex three-dimensional problem was decomposed in such a way that two-dimensional strut and tie models could be used. The approach proved instrumental in successfully visualizing and designing the force paths through the knuckles for the various loading conditions.

IBC 18-100: The Construction of the Sarah Mildred Long Bridge
Rebecca Frein, Ben Hawthorne, P.E., S.E., and John Gimblette, Hardesty & Hanover, LLC, New York, NY

Construction of the Sarah Mildred Long Lift Bridge presented many challenges that were overcome through thoughtful design and innovative construction techniques. This paper addresses many of the key challenges, including: construction of concrete piers with large diameter drilled shafts within a high flow tidal zone; construction of precast concrete segments for the lift span tower, which is a first of its kind application; fabrication and float-in of lift span; and commissioning mechanical and electrical systems.


Accelerated Bridge Construction, Part 2

Time: 2:00-5:00 p.m.
Room: Woodrow Wilson B/C/D
Session Chair: Pat Kane, P.E., Greenman-Pederson, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA

One of the latest trends in construction, Accelerated Bridge Construction, minimizes disruptions and accelerates projects to completion.  From projects for the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, the Delaware Department of Transportation, and the Florida Department of Transportation, this session will present techniques for slide in bridge construction, all precast twin V-piers, construction engineering services for a contractor, design of temporary structures, evaluating lateral bridge slide technology, FHWA’s detail for the UHPC shear key, and an Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) overlay.

IBC 18-101: Pennsylvania Turnpike Bridge WB-224B – Sliding Into the Future of Transportation
Eric Hayes, P.E., Sucevic, Piccolomini, & Kuchar Engineering, Inc., Uniontown, PA; Lisa Hoeke, P.E., Tunstall Engineering Group, Cranberry Twp, PA; Calvin Boring, Advantage Steel and Construction, Saxonburg, PA

The Pennsylvania Turnpike Bridge WB-224B project was the superstructure replacement of existing dual two-span PS concrete non-composite adjacent box beam bridges which carry the Pennsylvania Turnpike mainline over Brush Creek in Beaver County, PA. The superstructures were replaced using the Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) method known as Slide-In-Bridge-Construction during a 55-hour closure of the Turnpike. It was the first bridge to be constructed using ABC methods on the Pennsylvania Turnpike.

IBC 18-102: Precasting the Pensacola Bay Bridge Replacement
Christopher Vanek, P.E., WSP, Seattle, WA; Charles Rudie and Victor Ryzhikov, WSP, Tampa, FL

As the largest single transportation project in the Northwest Florida region, the 400-million-dollar twin 3-mile bridge replacement project over Pensacola Bay Bridge includes extensive aesthetic enhancements, unique application of Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques, advanced dynamic soil-structure interaction modeling and an aggressive schedule requiring 1,500 square feet of bridge construction per contract day. The DB team of WSP/Skanska selected a separated 375’ pedestrian wishbone tied arch for the main feature of the crossing along with architectural shade structures, twin V-piers, color-changing LED lighting, and decorative railings which complement the enhanced aesthetics. To meet the project schedule to construct the 106 spans out of 23.6 million pounds of steel and 162,000 cubic yards of concrete, ABC techniques were essential, with nearly 4,000 precast elements fabricated at an onsite casting facility and no cast in place piers. Precast elements include the first use of complete precast V-Pier (footing/cap/column), a 11’-4” wide pedestrian pre-stressed concrete pi-girder with integral parapet, modified thickened bulb tee girders and bathtub forms. This paper will outline the modeling and details of these unique solutions including mockup test requirements, use of 3D modeling for visualization and product development and a complex dynamic soil structure interaction approach for wave and ship impact loading.

IBC 18-103: Four ABC Bridge Projects on the PA Turnpike Northeast Extension
Mark Pavlick, HDR Engineering, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA; David Leaf, HDR Engineering, Inc., Plymouth Meeting, PA

In 2014, HDR began preliminary design on four bridges on the Pennsylvania Turnpike Northeast Extension near Allentown, Pennsylvania. The project involves the deck and/or superstructure replacement or a complete replacement of these bridges using accelerated bridge construction (ABC). The NB-355 Bridge over Crackersport Road was replaced over a weekend closure in October 2017. The design details and construction will be presented as well as the status of the design for the other three structures.

IBC 18-104: The Big Slide: Replacing Dual Bridges in One Weekend
Quentin Rissler, P.E., Larson Design Group, Lititz, PA; Phil Carper, Road-Con, Inc, West Chester, PA

Dual interstate bridges were replaced in Lehigh County, PA with a single weekend closure for the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission by the contractor / engineering team of Road-Con, Inc and Larson Design Group. After the team evaluated multiple lateral slide systems, an innovative lateral sliding procedure – a first for the Turnpike and one of the few in Pennsylvania – was developed with a focus on incorporating contingencies and streamlining the process to avoid stiff liquidated damages.

IBC 18-105: Accelerated Bridge Construction Methods for Bridge 1-438 Replacement
Nicholas Dean, Craig Stevens, and Jason Hastings, Delaware DOT, Dover, DE

This paper presents the design and implementation of Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques for Bridge 1-438 on Blackbird Station Road over Blackbird Creek. The 50’-0” single span bridge acts as Delaware’s first all precast bridge and incorporates the nation’s second UHPC overlay. It illustrates pros, cons, and lessons learned from using ABC techniques for the replacement of Bridge 1-438. It will also discuss collaborative efforts between federal and state agencies in producing specifications and plans.



W-6: Efficient and Economical Short-Span Steel Bridge Solutions

Time: 1:00 – 5:00 p.m.
Room: Magnolia 1
Presented by: Short Span Steel Bridge Alliance

The focus of this workshop is to provide essential information to bridge owners and designers on the use of short span bridges (i.e., installations up to 140 feet in length), including case studies, standardized designs and details, and modular solutions. The superstructure solutions discussed will range from conventional short-span steel bridges (such as those incorporating rolled beam and plate girders) to more innovative options, such as buried bridges and press-brake-formed steel tub girders. The workshop would include an overview the development and implementation of eSPAN140, a complimentary web-based tool, which can be rapidly employed by engineers to generate customized steel solutions for the short-span range. Also, the workshop will provide attendees with detailed information on the research and development of more modern systems, including experimental testing and analytical studies of innovative solutions. Finally, the workshop will give attendees an understanding of the overall economy of short-span steel bridges, including an overview of initial cost comparisons as well as life-cycle cost analysis using real-world data and projects.

Presenter: Gregory Michaelson, Marshall University, Huntington, WV


W-7: International Bridge Engineering Practices

Time: 1:00 – 5:00 p.m.
Room: Magnolia 2

Organized by: Myint Lwin, QC/QA Bridge Engineering Consultant, Olympia, WA

The main objective of this workshop is to provide a forum for participants to present and discuss innovative bridge design, construction, inspection, maintenance and preservation practices from around the world, sharing lessons-learned and recommendations for sound and practical solutions. There will be time for attendees to ask questions after each presentation. After all the presentations are completed, there will be an “Open Forum” for general discussion of topics presented and other issues of interest to the participants.  Attendees of this IBC workshop will be able to take away ideas and solutions that can be applied to their daily practice of bridge engineering.

1:30 p.m. – 1:35 p.m.
FHWA Recommended Practice on Design & Evaluation of Steel Bridges for Fatigue & Fracture
Brian Kozy, FHWA, Washington, DC

1:35 p.m. – 2:10 p.m.
Canadian Practice on Bridge Code Development, Quality Assurance and Extended Service Life
Neil Cumming, COWI North America, Vancouver, Canada

2:10 p.m. – 2:45 p.m.
Bridge Earthquake Engineering Practices Around the World
W. Phillip Yen, International Association of Bridge Earthquake Engineering, Centreville, VA

2:45 p.m. – Break

3:00 p.m. – 3:35 p.m.
Introduction to China’s Unified Standard for Reliability of Bridge Engineering Structures
Junli Zhao, CCCC 1st Highway Consultants Co. Ltd, Beijing, China

3:35 p.m. – 4:10 p.m.
Specifications and Applications of Composite Materials in Bridge Infrastructure in Australia
Michael Kemp, Wagners CFT, Queensland, Australia

4:10 p.m. – 4:45 p.m.
Applications of New Technology in Bridge Inspection, Monitoring & Evaluation in China
Yufeng Zhang, JSTI, Nanking, China

4:45 p.m. – 5:00 p.m.
Open Forum – General Discussion