Thursday, June 10, 2021
Inspection and Analysis session will include a variety of papers on inspection and analysis, involving new and innovative methods. We will hear about use of UAS for inspection and emergency response in Kentucky and Pennsylvania and the incorporation of BIM visualization to support bridge inspectors in Germany. Additional papers will discuss load testing, analysis and monitoring for structures in Maryland, South Carolina, Colorado, and nationwide for the US Army. Inspection and analysis play a critical role in the life cycle of bridges. This session will give perspective on some new and exciting applications.
Session Chair: Jennifer Laning, P.E., Pennoni, Baltimore, MD
Time: 2:00 – 5:30 PM
IBC 21-63: Kentucky Transportation Cabinet – UAS for Bridge Inspection and Major Bridge Emergency Response
Tracy Nowaczyk, P.E., Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort, KY; Joseph Campbell, Federal Highway Administration, St. Paul, MN; Katherine Caldwell, KYTC Bridge Preservation
In 2019, The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) Kentucky began implementation of an unmanned aerial system (UAS) assisted bridge inspection program. The program was part of the response to increasing concern with the impacts of decreasing bridge inspection staff paired with aging bridge structures. The KYTC sought to build a single proof of concept UAS program. The goals of the program included: development of a UAS selection criteria, creation of a bridge inspection manual, establishment of training needs, and creation of necessary policies and guidelines. Some of the criteria of interest for the UAS selection included: Flight operations without GPS, ease of flight operations and training, ability to use live video image through large screen format (large monitor or goggles). The KYTC sought to consider budget while implementing a program for the 12 regional bridge inspection teams with high end consumer UAS.
IBC 21-64: UAS Recommendations for PennDOT Bridge Inspections
Alicia McConnell, Michael Baker International, Chicago, IL; John Zuleger, Michael Baker International, Louisville, KY; Rich Runyen, Pennylvania DOT, Harrisburg, PA
PennDOT has recognized Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology as another tool to enhance bridge inspection and mitigate impacts of routine bridge inspections to the public. UAS have emerged as a leading technology with the potential to provide easier access to bridge elements while alleviating some traffic and safety issues. These impacts include bridge closures, lane restrictions, and the transport and use of bridge inspection vehicles.
IBC 21-65: Supporting Bridge Inspectors with Interactive Mixed Reality Visualizations of BIM Process and Geometry Data
Urs Riedlinger, Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology FIT, Sankt Augustin, Germany; Sonja Neumann, Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen – Federal Highway Research Institute, Bergisch Gladbach Germany; Marcos Hill, LIST Digital GmbH & Co. KG, Essen, Germany; Florian Klein, HHVISION | HOERSCH & HENNRICH Architekten GbR, Köln, Germany; Martin Mertens, Bochum University of Applied Sciences, Bochum, Germany
We present how to use Mixed Reality (MR) technology to enhance bridge inspections using Building Information Modeling (BIM) process and geometry data. Originating from identifying the processes relevant for digital MR-supported bridge inspections, we describe our plan to implement this support for the preparation and debriefing in the office, and the inspection on-site. We will discuss how the presented approaches integrate with the technical and organizational framework and future developments while respecting every party involved.
IBC 21-66: Proof Load Testing of Prestressed Concrete Adjacent-Beam Bridges
Mark Guzda, AECOM, Hunt Valley, MD; Ed Zhou, AECOM, Germantown, MD
This paper discusses application of the AASHTO MBE refined method of proof load testing for the re-evaluation of multiple PSC beam bridges with insufficient bridge load ratings from conventional calculations. Case studies include bridges of different age, geometry, deterioration and rehabilitation. Field measured strains and deflections of the PSC beams for incrementally increasing loads are assessed for linear-elastic response. The test procedure and case study results are presented, highlighting the benefits of proof load testing.
IBC 21-67: An LRFR Approach for Classifying Military Vehicles for U.S. Army-Owned Bridges that Require Engineering Judgement
Monica McCluskey, P.E. and Joshua Muller, PRIME AE Group, Baltimore, MD
As part of their 2020 biennial inspection program, the U.S Army is conducting a load rating effort for its bridges located at military installations throughout the United States. To date, 201 structures at 26 Army bases are being evaluated for both vehicular and military vehicles. 72 of these structures are concrete bridges with unknown reinforcement which cannot be rated using traditional methods due to insufficient information and must therefore be evaluated using Engineering Judgement. AASHTO’s Manual for Bridge Evaluation provides some guidance for these structures when the live loads are civilian vehicles. For Army-owned bridges, however, an Allowable Military Load Classification must also be determined i.e. a class of military wheeled and tracked vehicles that can safely cross the bridge. An evaluation procedure called Load Correlation is used to determine the proper Military Load Classification for a particular bridge.
IBC 21-68: Validation of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Performance in Laboratory and Field for Bridge Rehabilitation
Kuang-Yuan Hou, Yifan Zhu, Chung C. Fu, and Naiyi Li, The Bridge Engineering Software & Technology Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
Fiber-reinforced concrete is increasingly used in the bridge field recently. Compared with regular concrete, higher strength or performance is emphasized to enhance vulnerable bridge elements’ durability. Reported here is a pilot bridge rehabilitation project from the Maryland Transportation Authority (MDTA) to upgrades a steel bridge overpassing I-95. Fiber-reinforced concretes, including the Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) and the Ultra-High-Performance Concrete (UHPC), are proposed as candidate materials for link slab connections to replace traditional steel joints of the existing bridge. Because ECC and UHPC link slabs are new materials for bridge rehabilitation in Maryland, their performances are crucial for the MDTA to adopt this rehabilitation strategy on similar bridges. To evaluate ECC and UHPC link slabs’ performances, the crack formation is a fundamental indicator for fiber-reinforced concrete conditions. Continuous fine cracks are expected for fiber-reinforced concrete rather than a single visible crack during service. Special-made strain gauges are used to detect the deformation and monitor crack formations of cracks. For field installation, embedded strain gauges were developed and tested in the laboratory before field construction. Then, embedded strain gauges were placed at specific locations and elevations of link slabs during concrete pouring for long-term monitoring. In an one-year monitoring, crack formations of ECC and UHPC were detected by the embedded strain gauges, and the link slabs’ performances were also validated based on their long-term monitoring data.
IBC 21-69: Remote Radar Monitoring for Bridge Load Testing and Stay Cable Forces
Larry Olson and Patrick Miller, Olson Engineering, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO
Case study results will be presented in which static and dynamic deflections of a typical highway bridge was measured with a non-contacting interferometric radar system (IBIS-S). The bridge was monitored during both normal traffic loading and known weight, slow rolling load testing. The Interferometric radar system (IBIS-S) can simultaneously measure the displacement and vibration responses of multiple locations of a structure for distances up to 0.5 kilometer. The IBIS-S system has a maximum accuracy of 0.01 mm (0.0004 inch) and a maximum sampling frequency of 200 Hz (Nyquist frequency of 100 Hz). The system is tripod mounted and can be rapidly deployed, allowing load testing in a matter of hours. The results from the IBIS-S displacement monitoring measurements compared very well with potentiometer displacement results on an FHWA International Bridge Study project on NJ Route 23 over NJ Route 202 in Wayne Township, NJ.
W13: Redundancy of Bridges Constructed with ABC Technologies
Bijan Khaleghi, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA; Dr. Anoosh Shamsabadi. Caltrans, Complex Bridge Design; Jianzhong Li, Yu Shen, Yongxin Li, Tongji University; Mr. Matthew James Donahue, Seattle DOT; Changjiang Wang; Ted Zoli – Chen-Pai Lin, HNTB CORPORATION; Zhenyu Liu, D. E.; Hani Nassif; Mr. Zhu Cixiang, senior engineer of CCCC Wuhan Second Habour Bridge & Highway Special Engineering Co., Ltd.
Time: 1:30 – 5:30 PM
This workshop focuses on the bridge redundancy and identifies the breaches in the current practice on different aspects of redundancy that could improve the bridge structural resiliency in the damaged state and enables it to perform its design function. This workshop identifies rational approaches for assessing redundancy in bridges built using the accelerated bridge construction technologies. This workshop provides an opportunity for assessing the current state-of-practice in redundancy of bridges constructed with ABC Technologies.
W14: Railway Bridges: A Comprehensive Overview of Analysis and Design Requirements
Ebadollah Honarvar, Stantec, New York, NY
Time: 1:30 – 5:30 PM
Given the absence of a unified design code, this workshop presents a practical framework to effectively design and analyze bridges to embrace modern heavy, light, and high-speed rail transit systems. The requirements are explored and customized for a wide variety of bridge categories, including regular, complex, and long-span bridges. Instructions to develop project-specific design criteria, determine track requirements, identify structural and rail expansion joint systems, and conduct nonlinear seismic and track-structure interaction analyses are presented.
W15: Protective Coatings 101
Charles Brown, P.C.S., GPI, Columbia, MD
Time: 2:00 – 5:00 PM
The workshop will provide an overview of an industrial protective coatings project, including design considerations, material selection, surface preparation guides, ambient conditions, and basic quality control techniques. What participants will attain out of this course is a basic understanding of how protective coatings are specified and applied to meet the goals of a project. We will discuss Corrosion, Good Design, Good Paint, Good Specifications, Good Contractors, Good Inspection and Good Maintenance. We will review and present typical inspection instruments used on a paint project, surface preparation guides, how to read a product data sheet and how to measure ambient conditions.