Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania

Location

337 Fourth Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15222

Phone: (412) 261-0710 Email: eswp@eswp.com Get Directions

Wednesday, July 20, 2022

Technical Sessions

Construction Engineering Session

Time: 1:30 PM – 5:00 PM

IBC 22-70: Henry Hudson Bridge Rehabilitation
Lucas Morgan, Siefert Associates, LLC, White Plains, NY; Vincent Siefert, Siefert Associates, LLC, Naugatuck, CT

Time: 1:30 PM

The concrete foundations of the Henry Hudson Bridge Manhattan approach were severely corroded due to an Alkali Silica Reaction. All of the concrete footings had to be replaced while minimizing the construction impact to the 65,000 vehicles per day who traversed the bridge. Five lanes of traffic were to be maintained at all times during construction. Extensive temporary shoring towers were utilized, with up to thirty in total supporting the two-level viaduct during construction.

IBC 22-71: Safe Lifting and Handling of Rebar Cages for Deep Foundations
Dylan Allen and Charles Neth, Siefert Associates, LLC, Naugatuck, CT

Time: 2:00 PM

The use of deep foundations, such as drilled shafts and slurry walls, has become more prevalent in today’s construction than in years past. As the popularity of these elements has increased, the awareness of challenges associated with lifting and handling the pre-fabricated rebar cages has not kept pace. The fabrication and erection of these cages is based on field-experience and rule of thumb practices of suppliers, fabricators and contractors. However, several recent collapses have exposed shortcomings with relying on this empirical knowledge and demonstrated the greater need for establishment of scientific methods which address the safe lifting and handling of rebar cages for deep foundation elements. The tilt-up process is especially critical, as the rebar cage may be subjected to asymmetrical loading; this represents the most serious loading condition in consideration of rebar cage stability. During the tilt-up, any interruption in the load path or sudden loss of stiffness in the cage could result in failure and have a detrimental effect on project cost, quality, and schedule, and may result in serious injury or death. This presentation will introduce the audience to recommended principles, design/analysis methods, and best practices for fabrication of large rebar cages and address specification of internal bracing and added bars, lift planning and rigging, temporary support systems and installation procedures.

IBC 22-72: Rapid Partial Bridge Demolition of a Fractured Beam due to a Bridge Strike
Mario LoCoco and Charles Swanson, P.E., HDR, Boston, MA

Time: 2:30 PM

On July 19, 2021 at approximately 3:00pm, an over height trailer struck the fascia girder of an overpass in Medford, MA. The impact significantly damaged the bridge causing a full height fracture through the bottom flange, web and partially through the top flange.
This presentation will discuss the process of simultaneous bridge analysis, plan production and active construction. This help engineers understand the nuances involved in partially demolishing a bridge adjacent to active traffic.

3:00 PM – Coffee Break

IBC 22-73: Engineering for Bridge Demolition – The Need for Standardization
Josh Sakumura Crain, Lisa Briggs, and David Byers, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO

Time: 3:30 PM

For nearly all bridge replacement projects, safe and controlled demolition of the existing structure is of the highest importance. To properly execute a successful bridge demolition, much preplanning and preparation must occur before the equipment or explosives arrive on site.

Similar to when a bridge is under construction, the partially complete and changing structural resistance of a bridge during demolition is when the structure is at its most vulnerable. With a growing number of resources available for engineering for design and construction, standardization of engineering for demolition remains limited.

The paper will focus on the specific engineering challenges faced while evaluating bridge structures during demolition and highlight examples where shortcuts on structural analysis or field oversight proved costly. The paper will also discuss common removal methods and equipment used for deck removal/replacement projects and the engineering behind these methods.

Specifically, the presentation will examine several case studies. The goal of the case studies is to learn from past experiences, and as the audience will see, not all the case studies went as planned.

IBC 22-74: Gantry Cranes Keep Vital Bridge Open During Complete Reconstruction
Murray Johnson, P.Eng., P.E., Stantec, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada; Sam Johnson, Graham, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Melissa Jennings, COWI, North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Time: 4:00 PM

As a vital link in Edmonton’s transportation system, Groat Road Bridge crosses the North Saskatchewan River near the downtown core. Built in 1955, the seven spans  of concrete girder superstructure were deteriorated and structurally deficient, and a design was tendered to completely replace the superstructure and rehabilitate the piers. Two of the four lanes were to be kept open throughout construction, and any construction berms in the river could not block more than half the river at once, which meant that construction work would have to be done in quadrants, with significant environmental impact and schedule risk. During bidding, an innovative scheme was developed by the successful contractor to instead stay out of the river and use two 44 ton gantry cranes to demolish and replace the bridge one linear half at a time. The environmental impact was greatly reduced and overall schedule and risk profiles significantly improved as a result. Gantries on rails were supported on custom trusses hung off brackets stressed to the existing piers and a runway beam down the middle of the bridge deck. The concrete bridge was sawn into segments in a balanced cantilever demolition and removed by the gantries, after which new steel girders were installed in full span segments. Once traffic was diverted to the new half of the bridge, the gantry system was flipped over to the other side and the process was repeated for the second half of the bridge.

IBC 22-75: Temporary Tower Wind Tongues and Rocker Links for the Benjamin Franklin Bridge
Qi Ye, P.E., Liwei Han, Ph.D., P.E., Steven Htet, EIT, and Kyunghwa Cha, CHI Consulting Engineers, LLC, Summit, NJ; Michael Venuto, P.E. and Michael Rakowski, P.E., Delaware River Port Authority, Camden, NJ

Time: 4:30 PM

Temporary wind tongues and rocker links were designed for replacing existing ones at the towers of the Ben Franklin Bridge. Wind tongues need to resist a lateral force of about 1,200 kips and accommodate rotations and movements of the suspended spans. Rocker links need to resist about 2,200 tons of compression and 600 kips of tension. Innovative designs were developed to provide robust temporary supports for the bridge, and maximize the efficiency of construction.

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Structural Modeling Session

Time: 1:30 PM – 3:00 PM

IBC 22-76: Using 3D Models to Improve Bridge Design and Deliver Better Projects
Michael Alestra, P.E., Pennoni, Newark, DE; Scott Walls, P.E., M.C.E., Delaware DOT, Dover, DE

Time: 1:30 PM

Pennoni is providing comprehensive design services to the Delaware Department of Transportation for the replacement of Bridge 1-447 Taylor’s Bridge Road (SR-9) over Blackbird Creek in New Castle County. The replacement structure is a 4 span, 440-ft long bridge consisting of a precast, prestressed bulb-tee beam superstructure supported by reinforced concrete piers and semi-integral abutments that will pass the 50-year design storm and the effects of 3-ft of sea level rise, which will require raising the profile grade of Taylors Bridge Road at the bridge and along the approach roadways. This project highlights using a 3D model of the bridge and roadway as a valuable design tool. 3D BIM models were developed of the existing structure, proposed structure, and proposed roadway and grading. The 3D bridge and roadway models are being used directly for plan development, quantities, and reinforcement detailing and scheduling; a 100% bridge plan set has been completed. Benefits, challenges, and lessons learned from both the owner and consultant perspective are discussed.

IBC 22-77: Rehabilitation of Decks in Post-Tensioned Box-Girder Bridges
Philippe Kalmogo, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH; Nayana Sreekumar, Sri Sritharan, and Charly Sikorsky, Iowa State University, Ames, IA

Time: 2:00 PM

This paper investigates the effects of full and partial deck removal/replacement in post-tensioned girder bridges (PTBG) and their short- and long-term behavior using analytical models representing different types of as-built PTBG bridges from California. In addition to showing the significant benefits of partial over full deck replacement in terms of limiting the short- and long-term deflections and stresses, the paper will discuss the benefits of using UHPC for deck rehabilitation in PTBG bridges.

IBC 22-78: Launching Summit 8 Over Little Cuyahoga River – Analytical Modeling
Lawrence Rolwes, Jr., HNTB Corporation, Arlington, VA; Paul Papazisi, HNTB Corporation, Chicago, IL

Time: 2:30 PM

Launching is an ideal erection scheme for long span steel structures spanning terrain that discourages the use of traditional methods. The new northbound and southbound structures carrying Summit 8 stretch a total length of about 1600 feet over Little Cuyahoga River and multiple railroad tracks near Akron, OH. The steel girder system was evaluated using 3D FE modeling techniques in CSi Bridge and LARSA 4D to simulate critical load conditions throughout the proposed launching scheme.

3:00 PM – Coffee Break

Bridge Program Management Session

Time: 3:30 PM – 4:00 PM

IBC 22-79: Bridge Management Plans for Individual Bridges
Ashley Grzybowski, P.E., Minnesota DOT, Oakdale, MN; Paul Kivisto, P.E., WSB Engineering, Minneapolis, MN

Time: 3:30 PM

MnDOT prepared Bridge Management Plans for several individual bridges to enable decision makers to consider appropriate levels of preventive maintenance, rehabilitation, and historical preservation on specific bridges. This approach differs from network level Bridge Management Systems in that project specific constraints are identified, but draws on experiences learned from BMS development including deterioration models, cost models, and user costs. Project specific work types such as deck mill and conventional overlay, hydro blasting with silica fume overlay, redecking, and complete replacement were compared to determine expected remaining bridge life, life cycle costs, and optimal return on investment. Experience on benefits found with detailed inspection and material testing for items such as chloride concentrations and deck condition will be included.

Railroad and Transit Bridge Management

Time: 4:00 PM – 4:30 PM

IBC 22-80: CSX 59th Street Terminal Bridge Program: Extending the Service Life of an Elevated Terminal
Matthew David Santeford, P.E., S.E., TranSystems, Schaumburg, IL

Time: 4:00 PM

The CSX 59th Street Terminal is a 150 acre intermodal facility on an elevated rail yard that was built in 1913. The Bridge Program focuses on restoring the original load-carrying capacity to the 100+ year old bridge, which includes planning, inspection, load rating, design and management, in order to extended the service life of the infrastructure at the terminal.

Construction Session

Time: 4:30 PM – 5:00 PM

IBC 22-81: Replacement of the TRRA Merchants Bridge Truss – Face Lift for a 120 Year Old Bridge
Josh Sakumura Crain, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO; Robert Neville, Walsh Construction; Mett Boben, Mammoet USA

Time: 4:30 PM

The Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis’ (TRRA) Merchants’ Bridge is a railroad gateway between Missouri and Illinois crossing the Mississippi River near downtown St Louis. Along with modifications to the existing approach structures, the project is highlighted by the replacement of the three original 4 million pound 517-foot pin-connected simple span main trusses and reinforcement of the limestone and granite masonry main river piers completed in 1890. The original twin-track truss spans are replaced with three 9 million pound twin-track ballasted trusses. This presentation will focus on the accelerated bridge construction methods used on the project, most notably the assembly of the new trusses on a floating plant on the river and the gantry system and temporary foundations utilized for the removal of the existing trusses and installation of the new trusses. We will contrast the construction techniques between the original structures with that of the new structure. The presentation will also highlight the preparatory coordination and planning required for the successful truss replacement occurring within a 10-day track outage involving the TRRA, their Designers (TranSystems and Burns & McDonnell), river navigation entities, Prime Contractor (Walsh Construction), Heavy Lift Contractor (Mammoet) and Erection Engineer (Genesis Structures).

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Inspection & Analysis Session

Time: 1:30 PM – 4:30 PM

IBC 22-82: Evaluation of Cast-In-Place Open Spandrel Concrete Arch Bridges: Four Case Studies
Daniel Baxter, P.E., S.E. and Ally Willoughby, P.E., Michael Baker International, Minneapolis, MN; Grace Shen, P.E., Michael Baker International , Virginia Beach, VA

Time: 1:30 PM

Open spandrel concrete arch bridges from the first half of the 20th century can be challenging to evaluate for load rating and preservation purposes. Concrete reinforcing areas used in the spandrel columns and floorbeams of these structures will often not provide sufficient capacity for current vehicular loadings when capacity is computed using conventional analysis techniques. Additionally, non-standard details such as embedded steel Melan trusses may be present in the arch ribs. This presentation will provide case studies of the evaluation of four open spandrel concrete arch bridges constructed from the 1910s through the 1930s, describing techniques such as moment-curvature analysis that were used to obtain reasonable load ratings and to guide rehabilitation and preservation decisions for these structures. These bridges include the 3rd Ave. Bridge in Minneapolis, MN, Bridge 5133 in Redwood Falls, MN, US 29 over the Pacolet River in Spartanburg SC, and S-13-823 over the Lynches River in Chesterfield, SC.

IBC 22-83: Evaluating Steel Bridge Details for Susceptibility to Constraint-Induced Fracture
Domenic Coletti, P.E., HDR, Raleigh, NC

Time: 2:00 PM

Historically, reports of significant problems associated with details featuring intersecting welds in steel bridges have been rare. However, there have been several notable cases involving constraint-induced fracture (CIF). CIF is a particular concern since it can occur in a brittle fashion, suddenly and without warning (different from other types of problems such as corrosion or fatigue crack growth). CIF generally occurs in details that feature a high degree of constraint (leading to a high level of stress triaxiality), in combination with high levels of tensile stress (particularly from residual stresses) and a notch-like or crack-like planar discontinuity approximately perpendicular to the primary flow of tensile stress. Details subject to a high degree of constraint often feature the intersection of two or three welded structural elements and distinguishing between “intersecting welds” and “constraint resulting from the intersection of welded structural elements” is important in evaluating susceptibility to CIF. This paper summarizes the findings of a recently completed report on the current state of knowledge about constraint-induced fracture (CIF) in steel bridges. The report is based on a review of previous research, industry practices, and the input of a panel of steel-bridge industry experts. It provides a review of the fundamental principles of CIF and presents a general procedure that can be used to evaluate steel bridge details for susceptibility to CIF, with example assessments of commonly used steel bridge details.

IBC 22-84: Inspection of the World’s Longest Moveable Span, Ford Island Bridge, Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii
Amanda Schindhelm, Kyle Morrow, P.E., and John Loftus, P.E., Marine Solutions, Rosedale, MD; Anne Marie Prieto, P.E., Naval Facilities Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center, Washington Navy Yard, DC

Time: 2:30 PM

The Ford Island Bridge in Honolulu, Hawaii is the world’s longest moveable span. The floating moveable span retracts beneath the approach spans to open this important navigable waterway for the US Navy. The moveable section consists of a cellular concrete box pontoon and fracture critical steel transition spans. This paper provides a description of the bridge structure and discusses the specialized inspection techniques and maintenance challenges due to its unique design and sensitive location.

3:00 PM – Coffee Break

IBC 22-85: Retrofits in Twin Tub Girder Bridges for System-level Redundancy
Francisco Javier Bonachera Martin, Ph.D., P.E., Michael Baker International, Indianapolis, IN

Time: 3:30 PM

Due to the perceived risk of fracture critical members (FCM) in steel bridges, hands-on inspection cycles are mandated, resulting in high maintenance costs. This presentation describes the redundancy evaluation of three twin tub girder bridges with FCM designations. Several failure scenarios of primary members are considered using refined finite element analysis of each structure to determine if fractures result in collapse or loss of serviceability of the bridge. The analysis follows the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Analysis and Identification of Fracture Critical Members and System Redundant Members. Based on the outcomes of these analyses, the feasibility of retrofit alternatives is assessed with the purpose of reclassifying FCMs as system redundant members (SRMs) and preclude hands-on inspection requirements.

IBC 22-86: Bridge Life Cycle Cost Savings Through Inspectability Design
Jennifer Laning, P.E., Pennoni Associates, Baltimore, MD

Time: 4:00 PM

Standard practice during bridge design and construction is to consider the biddability of the construction documents, the constructability of the design and the operability of the asset. Quite often, designers do not consider the inspectability of the bridge over its life cycle. Inspection, required by law on a 24-month cycle at a maximum, presents the bridge owner with costs: labor, equipment expenses, travel impacts, and safety. These costs, especially for complex bridges, signature structures and high level river crossings, can be reduced if inspectability is included in design. This paper will look at the impacts of inspectability on bridge inspection planning and execution and discuss various inspectability challenges and potential solutions.

Non-Destructive Testing Session

Time: 4:30 PM – 5:00 PM

IBC 22-87: Investigation of Ground-Penetrating Radar, Impact Echo, and Infrared Thermography Methods to Detect Defects in Concrete Bridge Decks
Zachary Coleman and Anton Schindler, Ph.D., Auburn University, Auburn, AL

Time: 4:30 PM

Reinforced concrete bridge decks are often at risk of many forms of deterioration that impact bridge deck service life. Nondestructive test (NDT) methods have seen increasing use by departments of transportation to locate deterioration in bridge decks before the deterioration becomes significantly severe and to help prioritize maintenance activities. Nonetheless, uncertainty in what forms of bridge deck deterioration each NDT method can identify has posed challenges in effectively deploying NDT methods for deck condition assessments. Thus, in this study, a full-scale 18 ft by 31 ft reinforced concrete bridge was constructed with defects in the deck simulating reinforcing steel corrosion, delaminations, concrete deterioration, voids, and poorly constructed concrete. The deck was evaluated with ground-penetrating radar (GPR), infrared thermography (IRT), and impact echo (IE) nondestructive technologies to evaluate their efficacy to detect defects. Receiver operator characteristic analysis was conducted to quantify the capability of these NDT methods to detect a particular defect. While GPR could not detect defects below the top reinforcing bar, it was able to detect environments of active chloride-induced corrosion in bridge decks.

However, corroded reinforcement may only be identified with GPR if the corrosive environment is sufficiently severe. Surface staining (e.g. oil) or other features that significantly affect the deck emissivity can cause significant surface temperature differentials which may lead to false IRT predictions of deck condition. Based on the data analyzed and the methods evaluated, it is concluded that impact echo is the most reliable NDT method to implement to detect bridge deck deterioration.

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 Workshops

Engineering for Structural Stability in Bridge Construction
Brandon Chavel, Ph.D., P.E., Michael Baker International, Cleveland, OH; Frank Russo, Russo Structural Services, Philadelphia, PA; Brian Kozy, Michael Baker International, Baltimore, MD

Time: 1:30 PM – 5:00 PM

Participants will gain a better understanding of the behavior of steel and concrete girder bridges during construction and be able to identify vulnerabilities and engineering methods than can be used to investigate the structure’s strength and stability at each critical stage of construction.
Starting with basic structural stability principles, workshop attendees will be introduced to stability analysis methods and how they should be applied to properly engineer a bridge erection plan. The role of both permanent and temporary bracing in achieving structural stability will be addressed, and methods for bracing design presented. Behavior and design considerations for construction phases are provided through presentation of case studies and guided walk-through examples.

During bridge erection, the member support conditions, loads, stresses, strength, and stability are affected by the erection practices such as lifting, installation of bracing, bearing conditions, temporary supports, and placing sequence. Workshop attendees will learn how loads during construction differ from final design conditions and appropriate methods to compute and apply those loads, as well as equations for checking member conditions during erection will be included.

The workshop will be based on key takeaways from the National Highway Institute’s FHWA-NHI-130102, Engineering for Structural Stability in Bridge Construction, for which the IBC Workshop presenters are approved instructors.

Innovations Workshop (Various Presenters)

Time: 1:30 PM – 5:00 PM

Preparing for the Future of Automated Bridge Construction
Carson Carney, P.E., Advanced Construction Robotics, Allison Park, PA

Time: 1:30 PM – 2:30 PM

The construction market is rapidly evolving as advanced technology permeates onto jobsites. The industry is talking about the 4th industrial revolution but the stark reality is that few are prepared to embrace it.

Come learn about real life robots that are currently deployed on projects today automating valuable physical work. We will discuss how to successfully identify, plan, execute and evaluate pilot programs for these existing technologies as well as those that don’t currently exist.

Benefits of Using F3148 Fixed Spline Bolts and the Combined Method for Bridge Building
Jeff Greene, LeJeune Bolt Company, Burnsville, MN

Time: 2:30 PM – 3:30 PM

In this workshop you will learn about the advantages of using ASTM F3148 TNA Fixed-Spline Bolt Assemblies and the Combined Method of installation in bridge applications. Learn how TNA will improve overall bolting quality while saving time and money. The TNA Fastening System is ideally suited where single sided installation is preferred including steel tub, box, and large plate girder designs. You will leave this workshop with the knowledge to specify F3148 for future projects.

Corrosion Resistant Reinforcement
Mike Stroia, Commercial Metals Company, Catoosa, OK

Discuss the design and specification strategies, and the research initiatives to compare corrosive resilient coatings in reinforced concrete.
– Discover the long-term proven principles to protect steel and the evolution of the corrosion resistant reinforcement performance in concrete.
– Distinguish reasons design professionals should specify corrosion resistant reinforcement rebar (protection, durability, longevity, availability, constructability, sustainability, etc)
– Identify the environmental and preservation contributions of corrosion resistant reinforcement rebar toward the goals of sustainable development while reducing economic demand.

Bridge Coating Contracts – Quality Control vs Quality Assurance
Tony Serdenes, Greenman-Pedersen, Inc., Columbia, MD; Sarah Olthof, Greenman-Pedersen, Inc., Grand Rapids, MI

Time: 4:00 PM – 5:00 PM

This workshop will discuss the requirements for both the contractor’s Quality Control (QC) inspection and the owner’s Quality Assurance (QA) inspection. It will detail the responsibilities of each inspector on a bridge painting project. This will include what types of inspections are required to be performed by each inspector based on their role. What type of documentation each inspector is required to generate. How they should work together to achieve a successful project while conducting themselves professionally without crossing lines. This will also include communication between the QC and the QA.