Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania


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Wednesday, June 14, 2023

Technical Sessions

Inspection and Evaluation, Part 3

IBC 23-74: Structural Health Monitoring of the Great Belt Suspension Bridge and the Benefits for Operation and Maintenance
Tobias Friis, Rambøll Danmark A/S, , Denmark; Silja Tea Nielsen, Rambøll Danmark A/S Denmark; Martin Lollesgård, Rambøll Danmark A/S, Denmark; Torben Bilgrav Bangsgaard, Rambøll Danmark A/S, Denmark; Martin Duus Havelykke, Sund & Bælt Holding A/S, Denmark

This contribution demonstrates how operation and maintenance of one of the largest suspension bridges worldwide have significantly benefitted from a structural health monitoring (SHM) setup with +400 sensors developed in a unique collaboration between consultants at Ramboll, contractors and the owners from Sund & Bælt. The Great Belt Fixed Link in Denmark opened in 1998 and consists of an 18 km road and railway link composed of a tunnel, a continuous multi-span beam-type bridge, and a suspension road bridge with a main span of 1624m, the current 6th longest worldwide. The aim of the tailormade SHM setup is to provide knowledge of structural performance, deterioration and remaining lifetime to the asset managers that can accordingly plan maintenance and actions for mitigation of undesirable structural performance to ensure economical and sustainable asset management and safe operation. The paper provides an overview of the SHM system followed by case studies showing SHM outputs and how these are used in the operation and maintenance. Specifically, it is presented how the SHM provides insight into the vibration phenomena and fatigue lifetime of the hangers, insight into fatigue lifetime of the main girder including influences of operational and environmental parameters, and insight into wear and lifetime of the bearings. It is revealed how this valuable information are used in decision making of the operation and maintenance of the suspension bridge. Lastly, further improvements of the monitoring system and subsequent analyses are discussed with respect to the further value it brings for the asset managers.

IBC 23-75: Load Rating the Denison Harvard Bridge: A Hybrid Approach for Complex Superstructures
Aaron Englehart, Michael Baker International, Columbus, OH; Ed Baznik, Michael Baker International, Cleveland, OH; Shane Weiss, Michael Baker International, Cleveland, OH

Michael Baker International was tasked to perform a LRFR load rating of the Denison Harvard bridge in Cuyahoga County. This 3,000 foot long bridge superstructure is composed of four girder lines and three sub-stringers supported by K-Frame floorbeams. The girders in one unit of the bridge are kinked at splice points to follow the horizontally curved bridge deck geometry.

This presentation will include a discussion of how the girders and sub-stringers, which are supported by trussed K-Frame floorbeams, were load rated using a combination of Midas Civil 3D & AASHTOWare BrR. Michael Baker utilized the strengths of each program to effectively and efficiently rate the girders, sub-stringers, and floorbeams. This approach used limited modeling of the structure in Midas Civil 3D to rate the trussed floorbeams and to evaluate the girder and sub-stringer ratings. A large difference in stiffnesses of the sub-stringers relative to the girders greatly influenced the stringer forces and rating factors. Midas was used to confirm the girder ratings from BrR and to develop a calibrated BrR stringer model, which allows for future load ratings, including permit evaluation, to be completed with the simplified BrR stringer model, which allows for future load ratings, including permit evaluation, to be completed with the simplified BrR analysis.

IBC 23-76: NJDOT’s approach to Risk-based Asset Management and Prioritization
Rama Krishnagiri, WSP USA, Lawrenceville, NJ; Harjit Bal, New Jersey DOT, Ewing, NJ; Megan Ortiz, WSP USA, Lawrenceville, NJ; Juan Diego Porras-Alvarado, WSP USA, New York, NY; Travis Gilbert, WSP USA, Lawrenceville, NJ; Vijay Sampat, New Jersey DOT

NJDOT has set performance targets and has in parallel developed a Risk framework, utilizing the vast array of data available in ComBis, NJDOT’s bridge asset database and external sources (e.g. FEMA, FHWA) and will integrate the framework into AASHTOWare™ Bridge Management software (BrM).. Presently, the risk framework covers typical National Highway System and State Highway System bridges, and future enhancements include other assets such as sign structures, complex/movable bridges, minor bridges, arches, and County/municipality owned bridges, private/ Toll agency bridges. WSP and NJDOT staff closely collaborated via technical workshops to develop this framework. NJDOT Risk framework covers seven risk categories, including Fatigue, Flooding, Scour, Overload, Seismic Events, Vehicle Collision (Superstructure and Substructure), and Marine Vessel Collision, each category considered individually. For each risk category, the likelihood of occurrence and its consequence is considered.. Likelihood of occurrence is further broken down into each asset’s exposure to a given hazard (demand) and the magnitude of exposure to it. Filters were applied to verify that the asset is even exposed to a given hazard, whether mitigation strategies are in place and a consideration of the magnitude of the exposure. Consequence is evaluated by considering the asset’s capability to sustain the same (vulnerability) and loss as a result ( agency cost, user inconvenience, etc.,).The Risk Score Is taken as the product of Likelihood and Consequence. For each asset, various failure modes for each risk category were identified in an Excel spreadsheet, linking data from ComBiS. Future enhancements will gather additional data to supplement Combis.

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Construction/Erection, Part 2

IBC 23-77: Innovative Construction of the Gambo Creek Bridge through Engineering and Contractor Collaboration
Michael Izzo, P.E., Whitney, Bailey, Cox & Magnani, LLC, Baltimore, MD; Marcus Gursky, P.E., Whitney, Bailey, Cos & Magnani, LLC, Baltimore, MD; Ren Persaud, Kokosing Construction Company, Inc., Annapolis Junction, MD

Built in 1940, the bridge over Gambo Creek at the Naval Support Facility (NSF) had long exceeded its life and was structurally deficient. Due to the 18-foot width and 10-ton weight restriction, many vehicles serving the base could not cross the bridge, which connected major areas of the NSF. Vehicles able to cross were confined by 9-foot lanes, which created hazardous conditions for passing motorists. As a vital link to NSF missions, replacing the bridge was critical to maintaining operations. Whitney, Bailey, Cox & Magnani, LLC (WBCM), as Engineer of Record, teamed with contractors CER, Inc. and Kokosing Construction Company, Inc. on this design-build bridge project, which faced multiple complexities, including a dense matrix of utilities, environmental constraints, culturally significant archeological sites, unexploded ordinances, and bridge alignment constraints, and required virtual communication throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. As environmentally-sensitive wetlands prevented traditional construction methods, the design-build team proposed directional drilling below the marshland to relocate utilities prior to bridge demolition. This allowed the new bridge to be constructed within its existing footprint, which the design-build team showed to be possible using sequential span-by-span demolition and construction. This innovative method, which impressed NAVFAC and received approval, consisted of using the new bridge to support the crane and advancing on new foundations and a temporary superstructure to construct each subsequent span, thus, avoiding a costly temporary trestle. The new 520-foot-long bridge significantly improves roadway width and load-carrying capacity, eliminating safety concerns and restoring full access for all vehicles necessary to support NSF operations.

IBC 23-78: Old Champlain Bridge Deconstruction 
Wade Pottie, P.E., P.Eng., Harbourside Engineering Consultants, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia  Canada; Greg MacDonald, Harbourside Engineering Consultants, Stratford, Prince Edward Island  Canada

The Old Champlain Bridge, in Montréal, Quebec, was open from 1962 to 2019 and crosses the Saint Lawrence Seaway Main shipping channel. The bridge contained six travel lanes and was one of the busiest vehicular bridges in Canada. The bridge consisted of 50-54m long+/- concrete girder approach spans, 4-78m structural steel approach spans and a 450m+/- main steel span consisting of two anchor spans and a suspended span.

Harbourside were responsible for all sequencing/phasing, means & methods and temporary works design for the project.

The main steel spans of the bridge, consisting of three variable depth steel trusses, spanned over the St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Channel, making its removal particularly challenging. The center suspended span was successfully lowered to a pair of interconnected barges, using six large strand jacks. The lowering was completed within a 48-hour operational weather window, in the cold temperatures of January to coincide with the winter closure of the Navigation Channel.

The steel anchor spans are deconstructed by installing and jacking load into two 100ft tall steel temporary towers, installing jacking/locking collars to control dynamics on main truss elements, disengaging the span near its centerline, and deconstructing the cantilevers in piece-by- piece methodology.

The concrete approach spans over water were dismantled by lifting and removal of the span via barge with jacking tower and then demolition of the span on the barge platform.

This paper will explore the main methods, constraints, challenges and design considerations required to deconstruct the various spans types of the structure

IBC 23-79: New Champlain Bridge Vver the Saint Lawrence Fiver in Montreal. Design of the Temporary Works for the Construction of the Cable-Stayed Bridge
Ajejandro Pérez Caldentey, FHECOR North America, Houston, TX; Hugo Corres, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid Spain; Javier Milián Mateos, MSc, FHECOR Consulting Engineers, Madrid, Spain; Alejandro Abel Núñez, FHECOR Ingenieros Consultores, Madrid, Spain

This communication summarizes the design of the temporary structures used for the construction of the New Champlan Bridge in Montreal (Canadá). The complexity of the structure of the cable-stayed bridge, with a total width of 60 m and a strong asymmetry in elevation and in cross section, has been a real challenge for the design of the temporary works and assembly operations. The singularity of the of the assembly and bolting operation of the Main Span segments, comprised of three composite box girders joined together by transverse girders is explained at length. The alternatives for the bridge contruction are also dealt with.

IBC 23-80: Construction of the Wekiva Parkway Section 6
Robert Bennett, P.E., RS&H, Sanford, FL

The Wekiva Parkway section 6 project was 6.1 miles in length and was a complex portion of the overall 25- mile parkway around Orlando, Florida. This multi-lane limited access roadway provides more access for motorists as an alternative to traveling I-4 through central Florida. This project included 18 new bridges. Three of these bridges crossed the Wekiva River. This River is designated as a national wild and scenic River and the bridges required a 360′ main span to span the River. As a result, these bridges were constructed as cast in place concrete box segmental using balance cantilever erection method. The segmental portion of these 3 bridges allowed the work to proceed without encroaching on the environmentally sensitive river footprint.

IBC 23-81: I-84 Twin Bridges Project
Benjamin Martz, P.E., CDR Maguire, Allentown, PA; Timothy Benner, CDR Maguire, Allentown, PA

PennDOT District 4-0 is undertaking a critical replacement of two deteriorated structures located on I-84 over Roaring Brook and the active DL&W Railroad in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania. The project includes replacement of two long span steel mainline bridges as well as reconfiguration of an adjacent interchange. The mainline structures are being replaced with dual 1,200-foot-long steel plate girder bridges consisting of spans up to 330 feet long that are elevated 125 feet above Roaring Brook.

The difficult project site includes an active railroad, Roaring Brook, and steep terrain requiring the construction of several access roads, staging areas, crane pads, and temporary stream crossings for access, erection, and demolition activities. Early action pier construction under the existing bridges as well as staging of the new I-84 EB superstructure are critical elements of traffic control and pose constructability challenges related to tight clearances and global stability. The project also includes innovative use of an abandoned circa 1883 railroad bridge that once carried the former E&WV railroad over DL&W Railroad and Roaring Brook. Serving as an important crossing during construction, the abandoned railroad bridge is to be rehabilitated as part of the I-84 project and converted to a pedestrian bridge for future use carrying the planned Lackawanna County Trail.

The project was delivered 9 months ahead of schedule and was awarded to contractor JD Eckman at a bid price of $113,000,000. Construction began in Spring of 2020 and the new I-84 EB bridge is expected to be complete during the Summer of 2023.

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Rehab/Maintenance, Part 3

IBC 23-82: Arrigoni Bridge Rehabilitation
Joseph Doll, P.E., FIGG Bridge Inspection, Newington, CT; Michael Bugbee, P.E., Connecticut DOT, Rocky Hill, CT

The $45 Million Rehabilitation of the Arrigoni Bridge in Middletown, Connecticut was substantially completed in July of 2022. A historical landmark, construction of the Arrigoni Bridge was originally completed in 1938. The signature two arch bridge carries 2 lanes of traffic in each direction between Middletown and Portland Connecticut over Route 9, the Providence and Worchester Railroad and the Connecticut River. The bridge has been subject to several routine maintenance projects over the years, but the recent project consisted of substantial rehabilitation to the approach span viaducts. The Middletown approach consists of 9 spans 990 feet in length, the Portland approach consists of 19 spans 1220 feet in length. The concrete deck, parapets and sidewalks of each approach span were replaced. The project incorporated a multitude of other improvements including strengthening of the primary structural steel members, the steel bent columns, repairs to the unsound column concrete and the replacement of bearings. With an average daily traffic count of 33,700 vehicles and the need to reduce the number of through lanes to 1 in each direction, several construction and maintenance of traffic challenges were encountered. This presentation will highlight the unique challenges of rehabilitating this bridge.

IBC 23-83: Emergency Repairs and Road Diet at the Rt.71/Shark River bridge
Rama Krishnagiri, WSP USA, Lawrenceville, NJ; Gerald Oliveto, New Jersey DOT, Ewing, NJ; Rishi Rishindran, WSP USA, Lawrenceville, NJ; Alex Kluka, WSP USA, Lawrenceville, NJ; Andrew Foote, WSP USA, Lawrenceville, NJ

At the Rt 71 bridge over Shark River double-leaf Bascule bridge, the oldest drawbridge in NJ, with the highest demand for openings, an accidental failure of the center lock severely damaged the lock-bar, receiver socket and toe floorbeam, closing off the roadway to vehicular traffic. The incident occurred while large boats were still out at sea, scheduled to return later. Immediately NJDOT and WSP evaluated the field conditions, and maintenance cut away the lock bar to fully close the leaves. Fortunately, the two exterior locks were intact. The bridge carried three lanes (two southbound and one northbound), but the approaches only two. An immediate interim solution was required to reopen the span and bring the boats back safely. Immediately modifying the Finite Element Analysis on file at WSP, engineers quickly verified the deformed member capacity and the outer locks’ ability to carry live loads, tested the safety interlocking and verified that the span could safely open.

As a longer-term solution, a Road Diet was implemented, eliminating the center lane off the bascule span, thus reducing Live load to the outer two lanes and also utilize the improved shoulders to safely accommodate bicycle traffic. Pre-Emergency repairs, bicyclists walked their bikes across the open steel grid deck. WSP designed a Fiber Reinforced Polymer bike path on the bascule span, roadway was restriped, and provided safe continuous bike paths to the approaches. The re-configured lanes relieved Live load off the center lock, now non-functional, and improved the bike access, all achieved very economically.

IBC 23-84: Rehabilitation of the Detroit-Superior Bridge, Cleveland, Ohio
William Vermes, This Old Bridge, Strongsville, OH; Andrew Kustec, Pennoni, Independence, OH

The Detroit-Superior Bridge (aka the Veterans Memorial Bridge), opened in 1917, is Cleveland’s signature bridge, and one of the city’s most prominent icons. With creative urban planning, reuse of the abandoned lower deck, underground streetcar stations and subway tunnels are being viewed as future public spaces to compliment the upcoming development of park spaces below the bridge. To properly restore the stations and tunnels, the rehabilitation required a different repair strategy from those used in earlier rehabilitations. The design team incorporated institutional knowledge (i.e. the successes and shortcomings of the previous rehabilitations) along with a detailed review of the original construction drawing and previous rehabilitation plans that addressed long neglected elements of this complex structure. This included incorporating specific dimensions and jack arch radii in the station repair directly supporting the busy city arterial above. This information was used by the contactor to use geofoam molds for exact replication of the unique jack arches and column capitals. To prevent further corrosion of the reinforcing steel, passive cathodic protection was added in the form of embedded zinc anodes within the newly placed concrete. “Insightful notes” and “negative notes” were used to guide the contractor and resident engineer to not perform unnecessary repairs.
Additionally, deteriorated concrete over public areas below the concrete superstructure were patched using passive cathodic protection followed with discrete application of protective carbon fiber warp to the lower sections of the arch ribs, lower deck floor beams and structural floor beam corbels.

IBC 23-85: Rt. 30 over Beach Thorofare – Rehabilitation of an Historic Complex Single Leaf Bascule Bridge
George Zimmer, P.E., WSP USA; Rama Krishnagiri, P.E., WSP USA; Brianna Rela, WSP USA; Georgio Mavrakis, P.E., New Jersey DOT; Muhammad Akhtar, P.E., New Jersey DOT; Mike Kasbekar, P.E., New Jersey DOT

The rehabilitation of the Historic Rt. 30 over Beach Thorofare single leaf bascule bridge in Atlantic City, NJ, currently under construction, will address a major mechanical/electrical rehabilitation, structural deficiencies, and upgrade outdated safety features. Throughout the project, the WSP team had to balance fulfilling the project need, safety, and cost while maintaining the movable span balance, ensuring continuous use of a coastal evacuation route and preserving the NJHPO deemed historic features of the bridge. The paper will focus on the bascule span deck replacement, partial bascule span superstructure replacement, movable bridge safety, custom resistance barrier gates, and use of innovative materials such as FRP and aluminum to retain leaf weight. The project is scheduled to be completed in late 2023.

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W10: Optimized and Efficient Bridge Design (multiple presentations)

Shallow Steel Tub Bridge Solutions
Vin Bartucca, National Steel Bridge Alliance, Chicago, IL

The objective of the workshop is to educate the bridge community about innovative and cost-effective shallow steel tub solutions for bridges and educate the community about their advantages. Steel tubs are not new or proprietary, but they are underutilized because engineers are not aware of their advantages and the available configurations. Shallow tubs make stiff, economical bridge stringers that are easy to erect, due to their inherent stability, and can reduce the depth of the superstructure compared to other solutions. The shallow depth provides more hydraulic openings for water crossings or more clearance for traffic crossings; these advantages are particularly useful in bridge replacement projects

Optimizing Bridge Designs using ASTM A1035/AASHTO M334 Grade 100 according to AASHTO LRFD
Salem Faza, Commercial Metals Company, Irvine, CA

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifications are meant for use in the design, evaluation and rehabilitation of bridges, and the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) mandates the specifications for use in all bridges using federal funding. These specifications use LRFD methodologies with factors developed from current statistical knowledge of loads and structural performance. The workshop updates (code and commentary articles) are related to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 8th Edition, Section 5, “Concrete Structures”) addressing the use of ASTM A1035 Grade 100 [690]/AASHTO M334 steel reinforcing bar at yield strengths up to and including 100 ksi (690 MPa) for all elements and connections in Seismic Zone 1.
AASHTO LRFD permits reinforcing bars with minimum yield strengths up to 100 ksi (690 MPa) in non-seismic applications (elements, connections and systems). It also permits the use of high strength reinforcing bars but with owner or agency approval in seismic applications higher than Seismic Zone 1. In August 2011, H. Russell, S. K. Ghosh and M. Saiidi published Design Guide for Use of ASTM A1035 High-Strength Reinforcement in Concrete Bridge Elements with Consideration of Seismic Performance, to supplement the findings of Design of Concrete Structures Using High-Strength Steel Reinforcement National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 679, B. Shahrooz, R. Miller, K. Harries, H. Russell (April 2011).

Efficient Steel Bridge Design & Construction Using Collaborative Fabrication Models
Douglas Dunrud, WSP, Sacramento, CA

After participating in this Workshop, the attendees will be able to:
1) Understand how structural engineers and steel fabricators are currently collaborating using 3D Tekla Structures models in the vertical construction industry
2) Realize the differences between building models and bridge models such as camber and deflection at various stages
3) Comprehend the way OpenBrIM is developing fabrication models that enable the bridge engineers to meet the applicable code requirements and the fabricators to program their CNC equipment.

W11: Design of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites Bridges
John Busel, F.ACI, American Composites Manufacturers Association, Arlington, VA

The objectives of this workshop are to familiarize attendees with the background and code provisions related to design of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bridges and to provide cutting edge material and product advancements to design and specify FRP composites products that can assist attendees when building new composites bridges for Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) applications.

Section one of the workshop is to familiarize the attendees with the development, design, and construction of FRP Tub Girder Bridges. Best fabrication practices and available resources to assist with economical design of FRP Bridges in the context of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) technology are discussed. The workshop will be taught jointly by academics and industry professionals to deliver the material in the most practical and informative manner. The material is intended for bridge design engineers who would like to have deeper understanding of design provisions.

Section two of the workshop will focus on cantilever sidewalks can be quickly installed on vehicle bridges to provide shared-use paths to accommodate recreational and commuter users. These sidewalks consist of lightweight, prefabricated FRP structural panels that can be quickly installed on beam supports attached to the vehicle bridge. Case study summaries will be shown for the different types of decking and attachment designs used on previous sidewalks. Design details and calculations will be explained.

Section three will focus on key case histories that demonstrate the latest achievements and installations deploying FRP composites to solve infrastructure problems and an update on standards recently published pertaining to design.

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