Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania


337 Fourth Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15222

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Wednesday, October 21, 2020

Technical Sessions

Construction, Part 2

Time: 1:30 – 4:00 PM (EDT)

IBC 20-77: Withdrawn

IBC 20-78: High Load Jacking Frames for Pin and Hanger Replacement at the Robert Moses Causeway
Qi Ye, P.E., Liwei Han, Ph.D., P.E., and Dan Wei, CHI Consulting Engineers, LLC, Summit, NJ

The 467-foot long, suspended span of the Robert Moses Causeway in Suffolk County, New York is supported by four sets of pins and hangers, and each has about 600-ton tension (unfactored). These pins and hangers showed signs of deterioration after 54 years in service.

An original design of jacking frames was developed for pin-and-hanger replacement: a lower jacking frame with grooves underneath sat directly on top of existing gusset plates; it resisted bending moments from the eccentricity of jacks so that gusset plates were only subjected to vertical loads; PTFE sliding bearings that installed under jacks accommodated constant movements of the suspended span.
The higher the loads, the more complex the jacking frames become. The jacking frames and existing truss elements were analyzed for the 600-ton load. Advanced finite element modeling and analyses were performed, including stress and nonlinear buckling analysis.
A fully integrated approach for analysis, design, fabrication and construction was employed for higher quality and efficiency. A very detailed and precise 3D model was created and directly utilized for finite element modeling, producing contract and shop drawings, and design of work platforms. High quality contract documents garnered expeditious approvals from NYSDOT.

The robust jacking frames substantially increased safety of bridge duration construction. Easy installation and removal minimized construction costs and impacts to vehicles and pedestrians. Preventing gusset plates from twisting during pin installation allowed for tighter fit of new pins and ultimately a longer expected service life.

IBC 20-79: Stites Tunnel: Replacing the Bridge Inside a Tunnel
Quentin Rissler, P.E., Larson Design Group, Lititz, PA; Kamlesh Ashar, P.E., Pennsylvania DOT, Allentown, PA; James York and Timothy Hendricks, H&K Group, Inc., Douglassville, PA

Stites Tunnel is a buried two cell reinforced concrete arch structure that carries the Delaware Lackawanna Railroad over Paradise Creek and SR 191 in Monroe County, Pennsylvania. PennDOT Engineering District 5-0 determined that the tunnel needed rehabilitation and the bridge structure carrying SR 191 over the overflow channel in one cell of the tunnel needed to be replaced. H&K Group, Inc. (H&K) was awarded the $8.1 million construction project for the tunnel rehabilitation and reconstruction of SR 191 with a 345’ long precast concrete culvert structure inside the tunnel and two new post-tensioned concrete approach spans. H&K teamed with Larson Design Group (LDG) to develop an alternate precast concrete design to provide further innovation for the approach structures and facilitate the timing and scheduling of the multiple site activities required for this complex project.

The approach span structures have the unique arrangement of the overflow channel of the creek taking a ninety-degree bend under the spans. To accommodate this layout, a precast concrete deck was designed transverse to the roadway and supported by new integral abutments under the outside shoulder and new longitudinal 97’ long post-tensioned concrete edge girders on the creek side. To facilitate delivery and erection, the combined concrete slab and edge girder were cast in 8’-0” segments and post-tensioned while supported on temporary supports.

This paper will examine the practical constructability issues that need to be addressed in utilizing precast concrete and post-tensioning to facilitate site scheduling and ultimately delivering a cost-effective structure with minimal future maintenance.

IBC 20-80: Rapid Construction of a Precast Segmental Bridge Using the Span-by-span Method
Harry McElroy, P.E., M.S., McNary Bergeron and Associates, Broomfield, CO; Mike Brown, P.E., Southland Holdings, LLC, Birmingham, AL

The I-59/20 CBD Bridge Replacement connects traffic from I-65, US 280 and US 31 via a pair of dual-box precast segmental bridges. The old bridge was removed due to structural deficiencies and replaced on an accelerated timeline. Multiple crews worked simultaneously to demolish the existing highway and erect anew. A modular falsework system was implemented to accommodate all span configurations without overhead or underneath obstructions. Alternative falsework means were developed for erection over railroad and highway and underneath existing bridges. All told, 172 precast spans totaling 2,316 segments were erected in 7 months using the span-by-span method. This paper presents the challenges of constructing under a tight schedule, the advantages gained by demolishing the old bridge in its entirety, and benefits of design modifications employed on this project.

IBC 20-81: US 54 Canadian River Cast-in-Place Segmental Bridge
Jeff Mehle, McNary Bergeron & Associates, Broomfield, CO

The New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) is replacing the existing US 54 steel deck truss bridge over the Canadian River south of Logan, New Mexico with a cast-in-place segmental crossing. The US 54 corridor is a main trucking corridor from Chicago to El Paso with over 50% truck traffic.

A cast-in-place segmental structure type was selected to minimize impacts to the Canadian River and wetlands, with a long span design that can be constructed primarily from above with limited access in the deep ravine. The bridge box girder measures 43′-0″ in width, with a three- span configuration of 200′ – 325′ – 210′ along a constant horizontal curve. The box girder depth varies from 18′-0″ at the piers to 8′-0″ at mid- span and abutments. The new bridge will be New Mexico’s first cast-in-place segmental bridge and first segmental construction since the Big I Project (I-25 and I-40 Interchange) in Albuquerque.

This paper follows the project from alignment study to design to construction, highlighting the benefits of a cast-in-place segmental construction and challenges of constructing in a rural part of New Mexico.

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Rehabilitation, Part 1

Time: 1:30 – 4:30 PM (EDT)

IBC 20-25: Development of the Rehabilitation Program for the Historic 3rd Avenue Bridge – A CM/CG Approach
Keith Molnau, P.E., Minnesota DOT, Oakdale, MN; Jerry Pfuntner, P.E., S.E., P.Eng., FINLEY Engineering Group, Inc., Tallahassee, FL

The presentation will focus on the major $100M rehabilitation that is currently under way on the historic 3rd Avenue Bridge over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The bridge was originally designed and constructed in the early 1900’s and is a classic example of multiple span cast-in-place concrete arches (7 spans) with Melan Trusses. The bridge is eligible for its engineering significance to be listed on the National Registry of Historic Places and presented several challenges from other stakeholders, historic preservation, access limitations and environmental restraints. The Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) selected to use Construction Management General Contractor (CM/GC) project delivery and an innovative Bridge Informational Modeling (BrIM) for design confirmation and contractual sequencing. The paper will be from the perspective of the Owner and the Contractor’s Construction engineer and will address the following:

Project Background

  • Bridge History and Structure Details
  • Access limitations and challenges

Why MnDOT Chose CM/GC

  • Advantages & Disadvantages

Rehabilitation Alternatives and Cost Analysis

  • In depth inspection overview
  • 25 year vs. 50 year Options
  • Design Team Challenges

Bridge Integration Modeling (BrIM) and Construction Sequence Visualizations

  • Simultaneous Development of Design & Means & Methods
  • BrIM was Effective Tool
    • Design Verifications, Construction Loadings and Critical Sequences
    • Visualization of Construction Sequences
    • Equipment & Temporary Support Integration
  • Bid Documents & Construction Sequencing at Final Pricing
  • Project Schedule Advantages

Lessons Learned

IBC 20-26: Use of Carbon Fiber Composite Wrap and External Post-tensioning to Strengthen Prestressed Concrete I- beams in the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Approach Spans
Michael Sprinkel, Virginia DOT, Charlottesville, VA; Tony Ledesma, WSP USA, Denver, CO; Andrew Zickler, Virginia DOT, Richmond, VA

The prestressed beams in the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Approach Spans were fabricated about 1960 (west bound lane) and 1970 (east bound lane). The spans are 50-ft and 75-ft respectively. The brackish water environment has caused corrosion and failure of the bottom strands and deterioration and spalling of the cover concrete in many beams. A project to strengthen 30 of the more deteriorated beams is underway as an alternative to posting or replacing the bridges. Carbon fiber composite wrap (CFCW) and external post-tensioning (PT) are being used to strengthen the beams. Prior to construction, a mockup was done of one 50-ft and one 75-ft beam to demonstrate the contractor had the materials, equipment and staff to successfully do the external PT. The tendons outside the 75-ft beam was filled with grout and the tendons outside the 50-ft beam was filled with flexible filler. This paper describes the results obtained from the 2 mockups and the anticipated increase in strength to be obtained from application of the CRCW and external PT.

IBC 20-27: The Rehabilitation of the Historic Penn Street Bridge
Grant Flothmeier, P.E., Michael Urban, P.E., and Brian Teles, P.E., Gannett Fleming, Inc., Valley Forge, PA; Kamlesh Ashar, P.E., Pennsylvania DOT, Allentown, PA

The historic Penn Street Bridge, constructed circa 1913, is an elegant concrete arch bridge which connects the City of Reading and West Reading in Berks County, Pennsylvania. The 1,337-foot-long bridge in comprised of four different structure types with the main spans consisting of five open spandrel arches and nine closed spandrel arches. Prior to this project, the existing structure was severely deteriorated and was in urgent need of restoration. Due to the bridge being eligible for the National Register of Historic Places, the planned rehabilitation was sensitive to the historic integrity and aesthetics of the existing bridge while improving critical features to meet current standards. To achieve these objectives while extending the useful life of the existing bridge, much of the upper portion of the bridge was removed and reconstructed with the remaining portions being restored. Using the original design drawings, the original architectural features, most noticeably the reticulated balustrades and river outlooks, were reconstructed using precast and cast-in-place concrete elements. To control the weight of the structure, to improve drainage, and to fill unnecessary spans at each end of the bridge while preserving the original structure, permeable light weight cellular concrete fill was used. The replacement of an existing on-ramp structure at the northwest end of the bridge required the construction of an integral concrete header beam and strengthening of an existing foundation with micropiles. Lastly, a concrete coating was applied, period appropriate lighting was installed, and recreated obelisks were added to enhance the bridges appearance.

IBC 20-28: Dehumidifying and Preserving the Main Cables of the Historic Anthony Wayne Bridge
Joshua Pudleiner, and Barry Colford, AECOM, Philadelphia, PA; Shane Beabes, AECOM, Hunt Valley, MD

The Anthony Wayne Bridge, constructed in 1931 is a suspension bridge with a main span of 785 ft. that spans the Maumee River and a historic landmark in downtown Toledo, Ohio. The bridge is owned and operated by the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT).

Following a main cable internal inspection in 2013, ODOT decided to install a cable dehumidification system on the bridge to address the corrosion occurring in the high-strength steel cable wires. Since April 2012, ODOT has proactively executed major redevelopment projects on the bridge including re-decking of approach and suspended spans and full blast cleaning and painting of the entire structure. A portion of this previous work closed the bridge for 3 years, reopening in 2015. The last major component of this work is the main cable dehumidification and replacement of all cable band bolts.

Cable dehumidification is a complex blend of structural, mechanical, electrical and controls engineering. It involves the injection of dry air into the cable microenvironment to remove water and sustain relative humidity below a critical threshold where corrosion practically ceases. To date, only three bridges in the U.S. have had cable dehumidification installed; however six other bridges are currently in varies stages of development.

The project, which started in late 2018, is anticipated to reach substantial completion on schedule in June 2020. The paper will present the project work including best practices to guide bridge owners who are considering the installation of cable dehumidification systems.

IBC 20-29: Investing in Safety – Designing for AASHTO Guide Specifications for Vessel Collision of Highway Bridges with Sustainable Materials
Sam Boukaram, Lyly Lau, and Wanxing Liu, WSP USA, Lawrenceville, NJ, Gerald Oliveto, and Georgio Mavrakis, New Jersey DOT, Trenton, NJ

WSP designed the replacement of deteriorated timber fenders on thirteen major structures located throughout New Jersey. WSP’s innovative approach of large diameter hollow composite piles (the first used in New Jersey) included replacement with a new environmentally-friendly recycled composite Fiberglass-Reinforced Polymer Fender, significantly stronger than conventional materials. The system provides enhanced protection to the bridge piers from vessel collision, better resistance to marine infestation, improved public safety, and is a long-term resilient solution.

IBC 20-30: Upgrading a Tunnel for the 21st Century
Martha Averso, P.E., Thomas Leckrone, P.E., Brian Seip, P.E., and Ben Margerum, Gannett Fleming, Inc., Camp Hill, PA; Thomas Martin, P.E., Gall Zeidler Consultants, LLC, Ashburn, VA; James Stump, P.E., Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, Middletown, PA

The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission (PTC), owner and operator of five highway tunnels along the Pennsylvania Turnpike, implemented a major rehabilitation of the eastbound and westbound tubes of the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel in 2012, with construction beginning in 2019. The rehabilitation design was focused on improvements to eliminate water infiltration, to improve vehicular traffic flow and roadway drainage, to implement fire life safety improvements as recommended by NFPA 502, and to reduce energy usage. Significant upgrades were incorporated for tunnel ventilation, which in turn triggered replacement of standby power generators and upgrades to the power distribution system. A new Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system and new LED tunnel lighting system are also being implemented. In addition, the PTC desired to remove the ceiling and walkway in the eastbound tube to improve vertical and horizontal clearances and to improve overall safety within the tunnel for the traveling public. To eliminate water dripping on the roadway through the tunnel liner without a ceiling, a waterproofing system will be installed in the eastbound tube after ceiling removal. A PVC waterproofing membrane supported by lattice girders and shotcrete liner are being added to prevent drainage on the roadway while directing it to the tunnel drainage system. Vertical drains are also being installed at liner joints in the westbound tube to control water infiltration. The design required extensive phasing, as the PTC desires the tunnel to be open to traffic on weekends, while the contractor works around the clock Monday through Friday.

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W04: Exploiting Redundancy of Steel Bridges with the New AASHTO Guide Specifications
Jason B. Lloyd, Ph.D., P.E., National Steel Bridge Alliance, Chicago, IL; Robert Connor, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

Time: 1:00 – 5:00 PM (EDT)

Attendees will be introduced to the research and development of two new AASHTO Guide Specifications, the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Analysis and Identification of Fracture Critical Members and System Redundant Members, and the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Internal Redundancy of Mechanically-Fastened Built-up Steel Members. These are utilized to optimize inspection needs based on the redundant capacity of the structure or member. Attendees will be introduced to two newly-developed load cases, Redundancy I and Redundancy II and better understand the appropriate application of these load cases when evaluating for redundancy. Additionally, multiple analysis and design examples will be shared illustrating the processes and demonstrating to attendees how to implement the guide specifications for new designs, as well as existing bridges. Finally, attendees will also become familiar with the use of two evaluation spreadsheets that automate much of the evaluation for internally redundant members, as well as be introduced to free evaluation resources available through the NSBA.

W12: 3D/BIM
Alex Mabrich, PE, MSc, MBA, PMP, Bentley Systems, Sunrise, FL

Time: 2:00 – 5:00 PM (EDT)

3D information models for bridge structures improve design quality in terms of accurate drawings, constructability, and collaboration. However, there are lots of challenges to apply these techniques to actual bridge projects. The purpose of this workshop is to present how private and government organizations are preparing for delivering a true 3D digital project and their transition from 2D drawings to a complete planless submittal.

This workshop is divided into 3 presentations:

  • 3D Digital Delivery for Bridge Projects: From Plans to Planless Submittals
  • Preparing your Organization for a BIM Workflow
  • Design of Segmental Bridges using a BIM Workflow

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