Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania


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Tuesday, June 12, 2018

Technical Sessions

Cable Stay/Long Span

Time: 8:00 a.m.-12:00 Noon
Session Chair: Brian Kozy, Ph.D., P.E., FHWA Office of Bridges and Structures, Washington, D.C.

Long-span bridges present unique engineering challenges in design and construction. These iconic structures push boundaries, advance the tools and techniques, and inspire the bridge practice to innovate and “think big.” This session will cover a number of recently completed cable supported bridge projects in China and the US, and also provide information on live loads and aerodynamic performance of long-span structures. A project involving redecking of a long-span arch bridge is also covered.

IBC 18-14: The Design of Yangsigang Yangtze River Bridge
Gongyi Xu, Zhang Chengdong and Tian Daoming, BRDI of China Railway, Wuhan, Hubei, China; Bin Zhu, Wuhan City Investment Corporation, Wuhan, Hubei, China; Xinghua Li, MBEC of China Railway, Wuhan, Hubei, China

The Yangsigang Yangtze River Bridge is a mega suspension bridge with a main span of 1700m and designed with double decks for 12 lanes. The stiffening girder is the Warren truss and orthotropic plate combined structure connected all welded. The wires for the main cable are large-diameter with 6.2mm and super high-strength with 1960 MPa. The foundations for the towers are the round-end caissons while the foundations for the anchorage are the round diaphragm walls.

IBC 18-15: Reliability-Based Live Load Models for Long Span Bridges
Eddie He, Todd Ude, and Martin Furrer, Parsons, Chicago, IL

The load and load factors in current North America bridge codes are calibrated for short to medium span bridges. It is understood that live load for long span bridges is different than that for short to medium spans. This paper discusses the load study for the Gordie Howe International Bridge between Canada and with a span in excess of 800 m, using reliability-based approach with weight-in-motion data from both countries.

IBC 18-16: CSVT River Bridge – Steel Superstructure Design and Optimization
Jarid Antonio, P.E., Ryan Jenkins, Ph.D., Craig Broadbent, P.E., and Ahmad Ahmadi, Ph.D., P.E., SAI Consulting Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA

The CSVT River Bridge in Pennsylvania is a six-lane, 15-span, 7/8-mile-long, multi-girder structure comprised of three independent units. Three-dimensional modeling was performed, including all superstructure elements, using extensive loading scenarios under final and temporary conditions and partial-width redecking. Design optimization included consideration of potential girder arrangements, variable hybrid girders, efficient lateral wind bracing, and a consistent design process for diaphragms. Optimization and expediency were further achieved using consistent detailing and close coordination with the fabricator.

IBC 18-17: Study On The Load Decrease Measures Of Six Tracks Railway Bridge
Ai Zongliang and Yan Yong, China Rail Way Eryuan Engineering Group Co. LTD, Chengdu, Sichuan China

The New Bai ShaTuo Six Lines Changjiang River Bridge of Chongqing-Guiyang Railway is six lines railway bridge. On the upper bridge deck, 6cm thickness epoxy asphalt concrete flexible waterproof layer system was selected to provide a lighter selfweight; The longitudinal and transverse beam system was adopt on the lower deck, the concrete slab was a part of the composite girder, and also used as the ballast tank; On the others parts of the deck, The other dead Load Decrease Measures was considered such as the ge of steel ballast wall, steel cable slot and cancelling the protection layer on the outside deck of the ballast wall. Through the load decrease measures, the dead load of New Bai Sha Tuo Changjiang River Bridge is reduced from 107t/m to 97.5t/m, which saved engineering investment and gained impressive economic benefits.

IBC 18-18: The First Major Cable-Stayed Bridge in New York City
Hans Hutton, HNTB, Kansas City, MO

HNTB was the engineer of record on the Skanska-Kiewit-ECCO III design-build team responsible for the final design of the first major cable-stayed bridge in New York City. This project featured a two span, 1000-ft, asymmetric cable-stayed unit over the navigable waterway Newtown Creek just off the East River. Significant challenges to this project included a highly constrained urban location, avoidance of aeroelastic instability, demanding design criteria and an aggressive schedule.

IBC 18-19: Redecking of Minnesota DOT’s Smith Avenue Bridge (High Bridge), a Multi-Span Tied Steel Arch
Jonathan Eberle, Soham Mukherjee, and Wagdy Wassef, AECOM, Mechanicsburg, PA; Kevin Anderson, AECOM, Minneapolis, MN; Paul Kettleson, Minnesota DOT, Oakdale, MN

Deck replacement of the High Bridge, a long span continuous tied steel arch bridge, was planned as part of a rehabilitation project. The replacement required sequential de-tensioning and re-tensioning of the post tensioned ties to prevent overstressing the arch ribs when the deck is removed. This paper discusses the developed sequence highlighting the point that although not typically anticipated, re-decking of a complex bridge can actually present a critical loading condition.

IBC 18-20: The Impact of Windshield Barriers on the Aerodynamic Performance of Long-Span Bridges
Jessica Esther Garcia Navarro, Sara Bisio, Anna Bagnara, and Stefano Cammelli, BMT Fluid Mechanics, Teddington, United Kingdom

Windshield barriers are an integral part of the design of long-span bridges: by controlling the flow over the deck surface they minimize the destabilizing cross-wind effects on high-sided vehicles. At the same time, such appendages can also have a detrimental effect on the global aerodynamic performance of the deck. This technical paper will present several experimental studies where the influence of windshield barriers in the functionality of long-span bridges has been studied.


Innovative Contracting

Time: 8:00 a.m.-12:00 Noon
Session Chair: Kevin Duris, P.E., Trumbull Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA

Learn the success of  innovating contracting.  Project delivery included design-build procurement as it provides cost reduction, quality, constructability, innovative approaches, and increased speed of project delivery.   Also included is the use of design-build ABC techniques.  P-3 was also used that included Design-Build-Finance-Operate-Maintain (DBFOM).  Another project delivery used is CMGC (Construction Manager, General Contractor).  Also discussed is public-private partnerships funding.  Projects consist of  new, reconstructed bridges and the sustainable use of existing infrastructure.

IBC 18-21: Queensferry Crossing – quality and value in design-build
Matthew Carter, Arup, New York, NY; Richard Hornby, Arup, Leeds, United Kingdom; Naeem Hussain, Arup, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China; Iain Murray, Jacobs, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

The Queensferry Crossing in Scotland was recently opened at an outturn cost of $1.8Bn, compared to the original forecast of $4.4Bn. The 1.6 mile long cable stayed bridge, with back to back main spans of 2,130ft each, is highly acclaimed as being of outstanding quality and will stand alongside two historic bridges. Key decisions in the procurement, including up-front investment by the owner, led to price certainty, value for money and high quality architecture.

IBC 18-22: Bonner Bridge – Innovation, Economy, Durability in a Challenging Environment
Domenic Coletti, P.E., Elizabeth Howey, LG, P.E., and John Jamison, AICP, HDR, Raleigh, NC; R. Dominick Amico, P.E., HDR, Charlotte, NC; Nicholas Burdette, P.E., HDR, Pittsburgh, PA; Phil Dompe, P.E., INTERA, Inc., St. Augustine, FL; Mohit Garg, P.E., HDR, Tampa, FL

The design-build replacement of the Herbert C. Bonner Bridge, which carries NC Highway 12 over Oregon Inlet, required a 100-year service life, design for up to 84’ of scour, and minimal environmental impacts. The associated design and construction challenges provided opportunities for innovation and creativity. The resulting 2.8 mile long bridge features extensive use of precast concrete for quality, durability, economy, and constructability, a first-of-its-kind driven pile foundation verification method, and innovative, environmentally-sensitive  construction approaches.

IBC 18-23: Design-Build Rehabilitation of Route 8 in Connecticut using ABC
Michael Abrahams, P.E., WSP, New York, NY; Benjamin Szymanski, P.E., WSP, Glastonbury, CT

The Route 8 Project utilized accelerated bridge construction on Connecticut DOT’s first design-build project, which consisted of replacing four bridge superstructures, new retaining walls, bin wall reconstruction, intersection improvements and paving 8 lanes. The scope focused on installing precast skewed steel bridge superstructures in two fourteen-day closure periods, making geometry control a challenge. The FHWA’s ‘Every Day Counts’ Initiatives including design-build procurement method, alternative technical concepts, prefabricated bridge elements, and accelerated bridge construction, were used.

IBC 18-24: Texas State Highway 288 Toll Lanes P3 Project
William Amrhein and Sam King, Stantec, Lexington, KY; Elizabeth Gilbert, Stantec, Houston, TX; Lucas Kau, Annus Ahmed, and Karthik Ramanathan, Stantec, Dallas, TX; Bradley Shuey, Huitt-Zollars, Austin, TX; Christian Wiederholz, Stantec, New York, NY

Major, complex limited-access $850M reconstruction project in Houston, Texas containing three multi-level interchanges, 41 miles of tolled lanes, and 53 bridges. Project focus on accelerated bridge construction via: maximized use of standardized design groupings/details, monoshaft foundations, and precast concrete elements (beams, caps, and deck panels); and creative shoring tower placement for steel girder erection. Other features: post-tensioned pier-caps/columns; telescoping columns; hollow tall columns; sharply-curved, structural steel I-girder bridges; and overcoming challenging multi-discipline constraints.

IBC 18-25: Bridge and Viaduct Construction for a New Transit Corridor in San Diego
Nathan Johnson, WSP, San Diego, CA; Pooya Haddadi and Jim Liao, WSP, Orange, CA

The Mid-Coast Corridor Transit Project, in San Diego, California will extend light-rail service from downtown San Diego to the UC San Diego community, eleven miles to the north. The $2.2B project includes adjacent structure-centered projects, 12 bridge and viaduct structures, five aerial station structures, several unique wall structures, and geo-structural improvement below the track. It is being constructed using a CMGC approach, encompassing four other major structure-centered projects. Construction is underway and began in 2016.

IBC 18-26: The Benefits and Drawbacks of Public Private Partnerships
Howard Swanson, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Atlanta, GA

Public-Private partnership offer benefits and drawbacks in terms of cost, time and environmental permitting for a private firm. Criteria to consider by Private Firms before entering into a public-private partnership will be examined. Norfolk Southern Railroad participated in a public-private partnership to replace its bridge over the Genesee River at Portageville, New York. The Public-Private partnership included a number of conditions that had both positive and negative consequences on the project.

IBC 18-27: 


Design/Analysis I

Time: 8:00 a.m.-12:00 Noon
Session Chair: Shane Beabes, P.E., AECOM, Wilmington, DE

IBC 18-28: The New Johnson Street Bridge – A Unique Bridge in a Unique Project
Keith Griesing, P.E. and Brian Mileo, Hardesty & Hanover, New York, NY

The new Johnson Street Bridge was developed to be visually striking and maintain the character of the existing iconic and beloved “Blue Bridge”, a critical link to the business center of Victoria Canada. The new bridge employs a unique span support and operating machinery systems, and with a new iconic design will have a legacy all its own. The uniqueness of design was combined with a specially developed project delivery model. This paper will discuss the design features of this new structure and summarize the project procurement, and construction process.

IBC 18-29: Flying Over Vegas; Project Neon HOV Flyover
Daniel Baker, P.E. and William Johnson, HDR, Inc., Boise, ID; Craig Smart, P.E. and Nick Eggen, HDR, Las Vegas, NV; Dave Chase, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City, NV

Included in the 600 million dollar Neon Design-Build project, the HOV Connector Bridge comes in at 18 spans for a total length of 2,600 feet. The bridge design capitalized on conventional design elements which were optimized and combined in a way that leveraged individual efficiencies to produce an efficient system design. These included use of precast wide flange girders, partial depth precast deck panels, grade 75 reinforcement, large diameter drilled shafts, and post-tensioned substructure elements.

IBC 18-30: Replacement of the Rockingham Bridges 24N & 24S Using Precast Spliced Girders
Nicholas Rodda and Nicholas Rodda, HDR, Olympia, WA

HDR partnered with contractor Reed & Reed to develop dual four-span continuous, post-tensioned precast spliced girder bridges to replace the Rockingham Bridges 24N and 24S in Vermont. Each bridge will be approximately 860 feet long with a maximum span length of 245 feet. Upon project completion in late 2019, these will be the longest spliced girder bridges in New England. This presentation will cover structural design constraints, construction challenges and innovations on these unique structures.

IBC 18-31: Broadway Bridge Tied Arches
Natalie McCombs, P.E., S.E. and Sarah Larson, P.E., HNTB, Kansas City, MO; Rick Ellis, P.E., Arkansas Department of Transportation, Little Rock, AK

Arkansas Department of Transportation has replaced the Broadway bridge over the Arkansas River along the existing alignment in downtown Little Rock, Arkansas. The bridge was closed to traffic for 5 months, one month less than anticipated, to allow construction of the approach spans and to float the new arches into place. This presentation will discuss the design considerations of the two basket-handled 440 foot tied network arch bridges over the Arkansas River.

IBC 18-32: From Contracting to Construction: The Cumberland Flyover Project Reflective
Johann Aakre, P.E., S.E., Irsilia Colletti, P.E., and Mary Lou Kutska, P.E., S.E. HNTB, Chicago, IL;

Exceeding 850’ in length with a 656’ horizontal radius and four continuous steel girder spans built in stages, the Cumberland Flyover proved to be a worthy structural design challenge. The curved and super elevated superstructure required close attention to cross frame design and unbalanced wheel loading from centrifugal effects. When complete in late 2018, the Cumberland flyover will alleviate congestion near Chicago’s busiest airport and will benefit multiple agencies.

IBC 18-33: 41st Street Steel Arch Pedestrian Bridge – Chicago, IL
Dipal Vimawala and Jixing He, AECOM, Chicago, IL; Daniel Burke, Chicago DOT, Chicago, IL

The pedestrian bridge spanning over Lake Shore Drive & several Railroads, is comprised of 240’ long twin inclined arch spans supporting a 20’ wide curved concrete deck. Both arches are inclined in opposite directions to create an elegant “S” curve. The Project possesses many challenges such as, shipping and erection over extremely active RR tracks (263 daily trains), a major highway and need for a temporary bridge to allow erection of main spans.

IBC 18-34: Cable-Stayed Bridge Anchor Box Design using Mixed Material Modeling
Samantha Kevern, P.E., S.E. and Hans Hutton, P.E., S.E., HNTB Corporation, Kansas City, MO

The new Kosciuszko Bridge in New York City is an asymmetric cable stayed bridge. Asymmetric spans resulted in large unbalanced horizontal loads in the pylon. A 3D finite element model (FEM) using mixed material models was created for each anchor box to analyze the load transfer between the box and the pylon. This presentation explains how mixed material modeling was used to analyze the load transfer between the steel anchor boxes and the concrete pylon.


Accelerated Bridge Construction I

Time: 8:00 a.m.-12:00 Noon
Session Chair: Matthew A. Bunner, P.E., HDR, Inc., Weirton, WV

As described by the FHWA, “ABC is bridge construction that uses innovative planning, design, materials and construction methods in a safe and cost-effective manner to reduce onsite construction time.” One of the most obvious reasons to employ ABC is to minimize traffic impacts and thereby improve safety for the travelling public. All of the projects in this session are excellent examples of the use of ABC for this purpose. These success stories describe how relief was provided to thousands who use these structures which are a part of major thoroughfares and critical links in our transportation system.

IBC 18-35: Accelerated Superstructure Replacement for the Hoboken Viaduct
Thomas Zink and Edgar Restrepo, P.E., Gannett Fleming, Inc., Marlton, NJ

This project was initiated by the New Jersey Department of Transportation to rehabilitate the aging Hoboken Viaduct in Jersey City, NJ. Located between the Pulaski Skyway and the Holland Tunnel, this 220-span, 3,200-foot-long viaduct was initially slated for a staged deck replacement. A Smart Solutions Study led to an ABC scheme that changed the scope to a full superstructure replacement project while saving $35 million in initial costs and reducing construction duration by 12 months.

IBC 18-36: Pennsylvania Turnpike’s First ABC Projects
Steve Sadofsky, STV Incorporated, Douglassville, PA; Theresa Davies and Jim Takacs, STV Incorporated, Lawrenceville, NJ

In 2017 STV provided CM/CI services to the PA Turnpike Commission for replacing 5 existing bridges utilizing ABC, which was their first time using this method. The September project replaced twin, 150’ long, two-span bridge structures over Brush Creek on I-76 in Beaver County, PA. The October replacement project, located in Lehigh County replaced, a 60 year-old, three-span, 131’ structure along the Northeast Extension (I-476) at Crackersport Road. Both were replaced in within 55 hours.

IBC 18-37: I-70 over SR 121 Bridge Slide
Kevin Gorak, American Structurepoint Inc., Indianapolis, IN; Will Banik, Walsh Construction, Crown Point, IN

Accelerated Bridge Construction is becoming more prevalent in order to limit time that major roadways are closed. A bridge replacement that took only eight days on I-70, a major interstate in Indiana carrying 35,000 vehicles daily, will be discussed. Walsh Construction and American Structurepoint will explain construction methods used to demolish the existing bridge and slide the new bridge into place in a fast, cost-effective manner.

IBC 18-38: Modular Accelerated Deck Replacement & Rehabilitation of the 89 Year Old Liberty Bridge
Nick Burdette, P.E., HDR, Pittsburgh, PA; Jason Zang, P.E., PennDOT District 11-0, Pittsburgh, PA

The Liberty Bridge is a 2,600’ truss in downtown Pittsburgh, built in 1928. After 85 years of service, the bridge was in poor condition. Deck patch tests were performed to assess performance of possible overlay replacements. Following test patch evaluation, complete deck replacement using Exodermic grid deck panels was determined the best option. Modular precast construction with these panels limited traffic impacts while 170,000 SF of deck was successfully replaced in this $80M rehabilitation.

IBC 18-39: The Decision Process in the Selection of Accelerated Bridge Construction Techniques for the Replacement of I-64 EB and WB Bridges over Route 156 in Virginia
Michael Murdock and Daniel Davis, Prime AE, Richmond, VA; Jeffrey Hill, Virginia DOT, Colonial Heights, VA; Austin Clark, TranSystems, Richmond, VA

A detailed walk-through of the decision making process in selecting Accelerated Bridge Construction techniques for the replacement of I-64 EB and WB bridges over Route 156 in Virginia. Including discussions on cost and schedule analysis, construction methods, and non-standard detailing.

IBC 18-40: Design of a Large Skewed Bridge using Accelerated Construction Techniques
Michael Mozer and Charles Swanson, HDR, Manchester, NH

This MassDOT project replaced the superstructures carrying Commonwealth Avenue eastbound and MBTA Green Line Branch over I-90 and the MBTA Commuter Rail utilizing the Design-Build delivery method. This paper presents several design details used to meet the accelerated construction schedule of a three span bridge on a nearly 70 degree skew. HDR employed 3D computer modeling, steel bolsters, split pipe bearing stiffeners, precast (deck panels, approach slabs, backwalls, and link slabs) reducing on-site construction duration.

IBC 18-41: Signature Pedestrian Bridge Achieved Using ABC – University City Prosperity Project
Dwight Dempsey and Erika Hango, FIGG Bridge Engineers, Inc., Tallahassee, FL

This new signature pedestrian bridge for Florida International University (FIU) and the City of Sweetwater will cross over a busy roadway, creating a gateway into the FIU campus. This one-of-a-kind bridge features unique structure geometry and utilizes the latest technologies in design, materials and aesthetic features. Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) techniques will also be used to transport the 950 ton main span into place during a night closure. Construction will be completed in early 2019.



W-3: Meeting FHWA Mandates: Bridge Inspection, Evaluation and Asset Management

Time: 8:00 a.m. – 12:00 Noon

Back to Basics: An Introduction to Bridge Load Rating and Posting
Presented: Federal Highway Administration

Section 650.313 of the National Bridge Inspection Standards stipulates each bridge be load rated in accordance with the AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation (MBE). Bridge load rating also serves as basis for making important bridge management and operational decisions. To meet the regulatory and operational needs and to ensure the safety of bridges and traveling public, States must maintain an effective and efficient bridge load rating program. The objective of this Workshop is to provide awareness to bridge engineers/load raters about the regulatory requirements, and the fundamentals of bridge load rating and posting.

Asset Management and BIM for Bridges
Presented: AECOM

State DOTs are required to develop a risk-based asset management plan for the National Highway System (NHS) to improve or preserve the condition of the assets and the performance of the transportation system. Assets may be valued by different means. Depending on the accounting method used by, bridges may represent 20 to 45% of the transportation agency’s assets. To manage their assets some DOT’s have decided to do a “big plan” strategic plan approach. These include for example: the setting of strategic vision, gap assessments to best practices, and other measures of asset management organizational fitness. The results of these exercises can be voluminous. Other DOT’s and transportation have put more focus on “small, focused plans”, believing these to be more digestible and actionable. These states have often rather focused on actually “doing” transportation asset management. That is, typically through the setup and use of transportation asset management application software. These approaches looking ahead increasingly include BIM – or, BIM applied to bridges (BrIM). Three key advantages of this are: 1) most agencies are not able to best digest large strategic planning exercises, 2) agencies learn best by seeing and doing, and 3) the asset management implementation risk is reduced by using a proven vendor who brings a proven implementation methodology, a library of detioration curves and a track record of detailed implementation examples and project success. However, options for implementing bridge asset management have been fairly limited, until recently. This paper provides evaluation of: 1) the ‘small plan’ v ‘big plan ‘approach, 2) criteria for bridge management systems, and 3) an overview of the alternative bridge management software that is currently available.