Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania

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Tuesday, June 11, 2019

Technical Sessions

Construction 1 Session

Time: 8:00 AM – 12:00 Noon
Session Chair: Jay Rohleder
Room: Annapolis

This Session features exciting and current Construction Practice related topics. These presentations include a short span, shallow steel tub girder bridge field test in Ohio; challenging precast straddle bents over a busy Delaware DOT highway; Walsh Construction applications of ABC projects in North Texas and Boston; construction engineering for an overhead gantry in South Texas, a bascule bridge rehabilitation in Vermont and Florida DOT policies and examples of prefabricated ABC bridges.

IBC 19-6: ABC in Florida – A Practical Look into Past, Present, and Future FDOT Projects Utilizing ABC Techniques
Matthew Kosar and Thomas Andres, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL ; Jeffrey Ger, Federal Highway Administration, Tallahassee, FL

Over the past several years, the FDOT has developed an array of resources and expanded its policies in an effort to support the “Every Day Counts” initiative from the FHWA. Several policies, details, and decision-making tools, focused on the state’s specific bridge trends and work mixes, have been developed to assist designers and contractors evaluate the feasibility of ABC techniques for FDOT projects. FDOT supports the use of ABC and the implementation of prefabricated bridge element systems (PBES) for bridge construction as a means to reduce costs, user impacts, and construction time, however issues related to long-term durability and quality can be problematic depending on the details incorporated into the design.  The focus of this presentation will include a brief synopsis of FDOT policies centered around ABC applications, as well as coverage of past, present, and future projects utilizing PBES components. PBES component and connection details, as well as lessons learned, from major projects including the Edison Bridge, I-10 over Escambia Bay Bridge, Veterans Memorial Bridge and the Pensacola Bay Bridge will be discussed. The presentation will also discuss the status of the agency’s upcoming Jupiter Federal bascule bridge replacement to be constructed utilizing ABC methods. The presentation will conclude with a discussion on where the FDOT is going next with ABC given infrastructure challenges associated with a growth state.  Discussions will be made related to viaduct construction in the median of interstates, the next generation of structure types, and the benefits of specialized equipment and top-down construction methods.

IBC 19-7: Innovative ABC Replacement of a Freight Railroad Bridge in Fort Worth, Texas
Doug VanSlambrook, The Walsh Group, Chicago, IL ; Delynn Burkhalter, Burkhalter Rigging, Inc., Columbus, MS ; Josh Crain, P.E., SE, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO

The TEXRail project is a 27-mile, 14-station regional commuter rail line for Fort Worth’s “Trinity Metro” transit agency. Linking southwest Fort Worth with Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFWIA), the line affords its riders an alternative to the region’s congested roadways, increasing mobility and providing significant environmental benefits. TEXRail operates on portions of Fort Worth and Western Railroad (FWWR), Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR), Trinity Railway Express (TRE) commuter rail, and Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART)-owned Cotton Belt commuter rail lines and has additional interfaces with the Fort Worth Intermodal Transportation Center (ITC), AMTRAK, and Burlington Northern Sante Fe Railway (BNSF). A significantly challenging feature of the TEXRail project’s scope is affectionately known as the “Hole in the Wall” – a point of confluence in downtown Fort Worth of Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR), Burlington Northern Sante Fe Railway (BNSF), AMTRAK’s passenger rail line, and the Trinity Railway Express (TRE) regional commuter rail line. In addition to the daily presence of these rail entities, TxDOT’s State Highway Spur-280 runs closely overhead, challenging the GMGC Joint Venture Team of Archer Western Construction and Herzog Contracting Corporation to seek innovative solutions for the replacement of the existing BNSF/UPRR Choctaw Bridge under two separate, short outages. This paper and presentation will examine the chosen method and related engineering considerations made by the JV’s rigging and transport consultant and engineering firm, Burkhalter and Genesis Structures, which included a longitudinal runway launch, an SPMT roll-in, and a controlled lifting and lowering procedure with hydraulic gantries.

IBC 19-8: ABC Replacement of Commonwealth Avenue Bridge in Boston, MA
Justin Ponting, Walsh Construction Company, Chicago, IL

This project replaces the existing skewed superstructure that carries Commonwealth Avenue and the MBTA Green Line B branch over I-90 (Massachusetts Turnpike) and the MBTA Commuter Rail line. Located in the center of the Boston University Campus serving as the main pedestrian route for students and facility. This project used ABC methods to restore the spans in two outages over 2 years. The first year the eastbound lanes and the Greenline track spans were replaced in a 19-day outage. The second year the westbound lanes were replaced in 15-day outage. Between both years there was 107 girders replace and 480 pieces of precast deck slabs set conventionally with cranes. This project was worked around the clock during the outage with near 250 workers per shift and worked over 120,000-man hours. The major challenges for this job was the time restraints working on the Mass Pike (I-90) and around the MBTA Commuter Rail schedule.

IBC 19-9: Field Evaluation of a Shallow Press Brake Formed Tub Girder with a Steel Sandwich Plate Deck
Karl Barth, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV; Greg Michaelson, Marshall University, Huntington, WV

The Short Span Steel Bridge Alliance (SSSBA) is a group of bridge and culvert industry leaders (including steel manufacturers, fabricators, service centers, coaters, researchers, and representatives of related associations and government organizations) who have joined together to provide educational information on the design and construction of short span steel bridges in installations up to 140 feet in length. One concept developed by the SSSBA, shallow press-brake-formed steel tub girders (PBFTG), has emerged as a particularly advantageous solution for using steel in the short span bridge market. Members of the SSSBA collaborated with Muskingum County Ohio engineers and Intelligent Engineering to employ a demonstration PBFTG in conjunction with a Sandwich Plate steel deck. Upon the completion of this bridge, researchers from West Virginia University and Marshall University traveled to Ohio to perform a live load field test. This paper will present the results and assessment from experimental and analytical testing of the Amish Sawmill Bridge.  Furthermore, an overview of both the experimental and analytical testing programs is provided. This report also compares live load distribution factors (LLDFs) calculated using AASHTO specifications to the LLDFs calculated from experimental and analytical testing results. The tub girders not only exhibit excellent performance in the field but can also be utilized with various deck designs to create a modular unit that greatly reduces construction time. With Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) becoming more popular and necessary in the bridge construction industry, shallow press-brake-formed steel tub girders are a proven solution for short span bridge applications.

IBC 19-10: Launching Girder Gantry Erection Over Areas of Restricted Access
Harry McElroy, P.E., McNary Bergeron and Associates, Broomfield, CO

Often access to a construction site is limited on bridge projects. Some projects cross over environmentally sensitive land, difficult terrain, or over live traffic. Erecting from above, without access from below can be beneficial and a necessity for such projects. Overhead launching girders, also referred to as gantries are an effective tool for erecting precast segmental bridges using the span-by-span method. Approach ramps for the Corpus Christi Harbor Bridge are currently being erected using this equipment. A single gantry will erect approximately 100 spans of varying length and cross-sectional width, at a maximum height in excess of 200 feet above the ground. The design, kinematics and operations of an overhead gantry is a project and specialty in itself. This project serves to highlight logistical advantages launching girders provide, as well as design and schedule considerations. This paper presents the gantry used on the project and covers criteria for design, self-launching sequences, span erection procedures, and special components.

IBC 19-11: Design and Construction of Post-Tensioned Straddle Bents for US 301 over SR 1, New Castle County, Delaware
Loai El-Gazairly, Ph.D., P.E., Whitman, Requardt & Associates, LLP, Richmond, VA ; Paul Duemmel, P.E., Whitman, Requardt & Associates, LLP, Baltimore, MD

Section 1 of DelDOT’s US 301 project in New Castle County, Delaware includes the final design of 5.5 miles of limited-access toll highway. The structure design includes 11 new highway bridges, one bridge widening, eight major culverts, three retaining walls, and seven sign structures. One of the most complex design elements of the project is the interchange of the new US 301 with existing SR-1 and US 13. The flyover bridge carrying northbound US 301 over SR-1 includes two precast, post-tensioned concrete straddle bents (the first in the State of Delaware) with maximum span length of 106 feet and total design weight of 750 tones. The straddle bents were constructed and partially post-tensioned while supported on falsework within the median of SR-1 then transported, lifted and erected into their final positions. A second stage of post-tensioning was performed after erection to provide the ultimate strength of the bents and to support the anticipated superstructure loads. Due to the caps’ concrete volume, a mass concrete provision was introduced, along with a thermal control plan, to constrain the core temperature due to hydration and to prevent the formation of potential cracks. The paper discusses the straddle bent cap design philosophy and its structural analysis during casting, construction staging, transporting and erection.

IBC 19-12: Designing Out Risk: The North Hero-Grand Isle Bridge Replacement Project
Michael Mozer, P.E., HDR, Manchester, NH ; Herbert Protin and Stephanie Santrich, HDR, Newark, NJ

The North Hero-Grand Isle Drawbridge, a double leaf bascule bridge, is the only working vehicular drawbridge in Vermont and the only highway link between the North Hero and Grand Isle communities. The bridge also provides the only unrestricted vertical clearance passage for east-west marine traffic along Lake Champlain. Originally constructed in 1953, the bridge is unreliable and requires increased maintenance to remain operational. The Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) has no in-house movable bridge design expertise, and selected HDR to provide design services under one of the Agency’s first Construction Manager / General Contractor contracts. HDR worked with both the Client and Construction Manager to develop a project meeting the Agency’s service life and maintenance needs. The project’s scope and preliminary design were developed with the Agency, while final design was advanced over a 24-month period taking into account contractor preferred means and methods based upon a risk mitigation approach. This design process was successful due to the high level of cooperation and honest discussion amongst all team members. We utilized 3-D graphical tools for bridge design and detailing and developed a 3-D BIM model detailing future maintenance and inspection requirements. The selected alternative consisted of a new double leaf bascule bridge constructed on a similar horizontal alignment, while the profile was raised approximately 4.5 ft. to accommodate the new superstructure. The need to maintain vehicular and marine traffic necessitated the use of a single leaf bascule temporary bridge on a parallel alignment to the proposed structure.

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Preservation 1 Session

Time: 8:00 AM – 12:00 Noon
Session Chair: Frank Russo
Room: Woodrow Wilson A

Bridge preservation and rehabilitation are explored in a series of presentations. Topics include emergency repair of impact damaged steel girder and truss bridges, suspension bridge cable maintenance and preservation, external FRP repair of prestressed concrete and steel beams and bridge piers, and rehabilitation of the historic Arlington Memorial Bridge. A wide range of bridge types and projects, emergency and planned responses, are all presented in this session.

IBC 19-13: South Tenth Street Bridge Rehabilitation
Stan Nalitz, P.E. and William Confair, P.E., AECOM, Pittsburgh, PA

The Philip Murray (South Tenth Street) Bridge is a suspension bridge with a main span length of 725 feet. Built in 1933, the structure has a total length of 1,275 feet and links the City of Pittsburgh with its Southside communities. The presentation will discuss methods and testing used to inspect, analyze and develop a strategy for the rehabilitation. AECOM conducted a thorough in-depth inspection, including an internal cable inspection, to accurately identify the exact location, extent, overall dimensions, and type of each necessary repair. Based on the results of the field inspection, materials testing program, and structural analyses, a comprehensive plan was developed that presents the evaluations and repair recommendations. One of the key elements of this structural rehabilitation is the inspection, analysis, and rehabilitation of the suspension cables. The presentation also discusses the decision making process for cable preservation. The cable rehabilitation includes a dehumidification system of both the anchorage and main cables. The construction was undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 was completed in 2015. Phase 2 is being completed in 2019.

IBC 19-14: More Than A Bridge – Rehabilitating Arlington Memorial Bridge: Our Capital’s Ceremonial Entrance
Shane R. Beabes, P.E., AECOM, Hunt Valley, MD; Kenneth V. Butler, AECOM, Glen Allen, VA ; Donnie Arant, Kiewit, Hanover, MD ; Jonathan Shafer, National Park Service, Washington, DC; David M. Marcic, Hardesty and Hanover, Annapolis, MD; Ramnik Satasiya, Joe Fabis and George Choubah, Federal Highway Administration, Sterling, VA

Stretching across the Potomac, Arlington Memorial Bridge connects the Lincoln Memorial to the ceremonial entrance of Arlington National Cemetery. Built in 1932, the nearly 2,100-foot-long and 94-foot-wide bridge carries six 10-foot-wide travel lanes and two nearly 14-foot-wide shared-use bicycle and pedestrian sidewalks. The bridge was built to complement the neoclassical design of the Nation’s Capital and comprises 10 reinforced concrete arches with a double-leaf steel bascule span in its center, the majority of which is dressed in granite ashlar stone. Nearly 85 years after its construction, the National Park Service, in coordination with Federal Highway Administration, has embarked on one of the largest transportation projects in its history to rehabilitate the bridge. The project was procured using the design-build project delivery system and awarded in 2017 to the Kiewit-AECOM Team. To date, the design is substantially complete, and construction is underway. The project includes the rehabilitation and repair of several major components of the bridge including the concrete abutments, piers, arches and deck, the latter requiring a major shift in traffic and the use of precast concrete deck panels to accelerate construction. Work also includes replacing the double-leaf bascule span with a new steel fixed-span superstructure, repairing and preserving the ornate granite work throughout the bridge, and other aesthetic or structural work. The paper will present the major objectives of the project and progress of construction.

IBC 19-15: Collaboration & Innovation in Emergency Response
Kyle Smith, P.E., S.E., Greenman-Pedersen, Inc., Annapolis Junction, MD ; Rod Thornton, P.E., Maryland DOT-State Highway Administration, MD

On December 6, 2017, a heavily traveled Historic Parker Truss bridge carrying MD 355 over Monocacy River was damaged when a garbage truck struck its overhead members. The end portal frame was severely damaged, and the first two overhead horizontal members were pushed so far out-of-plane that several vertical members of the primary truss were severed. Fortunately, the impact did not lead to a catastrophic failure, but the residual capacity of the bridge was unknown, and the route was immediately closed. After considering the need for analysis, design, fabrication, construction, and testing; MDOT-SHA informed the public that the repairs would take approximately 60 days to complete. This would further exacerbate the traffic congestion on I-270, since 12,000 vehicles per day used this bridge on MD 355 as a bypass to I-270. Recognizing the route’s value to the community during the busy holiday season, the MDOT-SHA was intent on getting this bridge back in service as quickly as possible. A project team composed of the MDOT-SHA, GPI, PDI Sheetz, Wilton Corporation, and AECOM was assembled to restore the bridge to service as quickly as practical and were able to re-open the bridge after only 36 days (or 60% of the original estimate). This paper presents an overview of the operational, design, and construction challenges encountered in handling this emergency. The discussion delves into the public outreach, team assembly, 3D modeling, fabrication, construction, innovative design, jacking frame and operations, resourceful material procurement, NDE, instrumentation, and live load testing.

IBC 19-16: Use of Carbon Fiber Composite Wrap and External Post-Tensioning to Strengthen Prestressed Concrete I- Beams in the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Approach Spans
Michael Sprinkel, P.E., Virginia DOT/VTRC, Charlottesville, VA ; Tony Ledesma, WSP, Denver, CO ; Andrew Zickler, P.E., Virginia DOT, Richmond, VA

The prestressed beams in the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Approach Spans were fabricated about 1960 (west bound lane) and 1970 (east bound lane). The spans are 50-ft and 75-ft respectively. The brackish water environment has caused corrosion and failure of the bottom strands and deterioration and spalling of the cover concrete in many beams. A project to strengthen 30 of the more deteriorated beams is underway as an alternative to posting or replacing the bridges. Carbon fiber composite wrap (CFCW) and external post-tensioning (PT) are being used to strengthen the beams. Prior to construction, a mockup was done of one 50-ft and one 75-ft beam to demonstrate the contractor had the materials, equipment and staff to successfully do the external PT. The tendons outside the 75-ft beam was filled with grout and the tendons outside the 50-ft beam was filled with flexible filler. This paper describes the results obtained from the 2 mockups and the anticipated increase in strength to be obtained from application of the CRCW and external PT.

IBC 19-17: Emergency Bridge Repairs During the Winter, Chisago County Rd 10 Over 1-35
Mark Pribula, P.E., Minnesota DOT, Roseville, MN

This presentation will describe and detail the damage to the bridge, repair process and the engineering design methods employed to repair the structure and return it to service during a Minnesota winter, using the details of Br 13806 over I-35 in Harris, Minnesota on October 19, 2017. The presentation will also show the damage inspection procedures, repair designs and methodology. MnDOT’s Metro District was informed that the bridge had been hit by high load (backhoe or crane boom) by the MN State Patrol and Chisago County Sheriff’s office. The initial weather was a typical MN fall day however, due to other factors; related to repair design, early winter weather and our bridge crews being part of our Snow & Ice complement. The bridge repairs commenced and were completed during January of 2018 at the height of our MN winter. The high load struck beams #2 & #3 above the northbound right hand lane. The initial damage inspection found that the high load impact caused a shearing cut line at the point of impact, cutting beam #2 exterior bottom flange almost completed to the beam’s flange/web intersection and related diaphragm impact buckling and beam web cracking. In order to fix this bridge and ensure the safety of the public MnDOT employed heat straightening to realign and repair beam #2 and the related diaphragms with additional NTD testing to identify the extent of the beam web cracking. Splice plates were then placed to strengthen the beams flanges and web.

IBC 19-18: Flexura Strengthening of Heavily Corroded Steel Members Using CFRP
Samuel Sherry and Matthew Hebdon, Virginia Tech, BLACKSBURG, VA

With an aging and deteriorating infrastructure potentially being subjected to heavier loads than initially designed for, bridge engineers are increasingly looking for innovative, yet cost effective ways of repairing and maintaining existing bridges. There is particular concern when dealing with heavily corroded steel bridge members. Conventional repair methods can be very costly in terms of labor/material costs, as well as lane closures and effects to traffic. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates are a potential solution for strengthening steel members with additional attractive benefits; the material can be applied to bridge members while the bridge is in service, and is corrosion resistant. CFRP laminates have been investigated broadly, but primarily for concrete bridge applications and for steel structures on smooth surfaces. This study investigates the bond behavior of CFRP to heavily corroded steel surfaces having non-uniform profiles, such as is common in deteriorated steel structures. Four different surface profiles and two types of CFRP laminates have been evaluated through small-scale tests as well as on full-scale heavily corroded steel beams which were removed from service. Small scale double strap joint specimens and doubly reinforced specimens were fabricated by machining simulated corrosion to create realistic, yet consistent corrosion profiles. This research provides data quantifying the bond relationship between CFRP and non-uniform steel surfaces, to define maximum strength in such applications.

IBC 19-19: Carbon FRP Jackets for Seismic Strengthening of Bridge Piers – A Case Study
Ravi Kanitkar, KL Structures, Austin, TX ; Alice Fong, Jacobs, Bellevue, WA ; Gregg Blaszak, Milliken Infrastructure Solutions, LLC, Spartanburg, SC

For the design-build seismic retrofit of this existing 3-span bridge, the circular piers needed additional shear strength as well as confinement. The designers initially envisioned the use of welded steel jackets to strengthen the existing piers. The design thickness of the steel jackets was 3/8”, which is the minimum required by the FHWA Seismic Retrofitting Manual. The high cost and construction logistics of the steel jackets prompted the designers to look at the use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) jackets for the existing piers. A preliminary design of the FRP jackets indicated that not only would FRP jackets provide the required shear strength and confinement but that FRP jackets would be significantly more cost-effective as compared to the welded steel jackets. This paper describes the decision-making process during the selection of FRP in lieu of the steel jackets, the design of the FRP jackets and the construction of the FRP retrofit. In addition, the paper also describes FRP materials, available design codes for FRP strengthening and provides guidance on how FRP retrofits should be detailed and specified in construction documents for retrofit of existing bridges.

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Design 1 Session

Time: 8:00 AM – 12:00 Noon
Session Chair: Ronald Medlock
Room: Woodrow Wilson B/C/D

This session will feature projects and discussions that demonstrate technical advancements and state-of-the-art practices in the design of transportation structures, including bridges and sign structures.

IBC 19-20: Iowa City Gateway: Park Road Bridge
Natalie McCombs, P.E., S.E., and Sarah Larson, HNTB, Kansas City, MO

Dubuque Street and Park Road are key transportation links providing access to Iowa City’s business district.  The Park Road bridge provides a connection from Dubuque Street to the University of Iowa campus and the new Hancher Auditorium. This area has a history of flooding that results in frequent road closures. This project is part of a master plan to address the impacts of regional flooding and provide enhancements to the transportation corridor. Key goals included reducing closures due to flooding, improving user access, and providing a new aesthetic Iowa River crossing at Park Road. The selected structure type consists of a unique three-span, concrete, partial-through tied-arch bridge. This bridge is composed of a continuous post-tensioned tie girder supporting transverse post-tensioned floorbeams and a mildly reinforced concrete arch. Design of the aesthetic structure did not come without challenges. The unique framing of the bridge caused some unexpected structural behavior during design. Under thermal loading, the main span contracts causing the main span piers to rotate. The rotation causes the main span to sag and the approach spans to raise in response. This behavior induced significant loads into the framed-in regions of the structure. Several options were evaluated to address this behavior and the corresponding forces. Ultimately, HNTB chose to design the structure to carry the thermal loads by resisting the tension in the slab. HNTB’s innovative solution was to impose a vertical load during erection at the abutments to help counteract these tension forces in the deck.

IBC 19-21: Evaluation of Fabrication Effects for a Lift Bridge Steel Orthotropic Deck
Sougata Roy, Ph.D., Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, PA ; Soham Mukherjee, AECOM, Mechanicsburg, PA ; Ronald D. Medlock, P.E., High Steel Structures, LLC, Lancaster, PA

One of the major challenges to increased implementation of orthotropic bridge decks is the relatively high initial cost owing to intensive fabrication and tolerances, which is mandated to achieve the desired fatigue resistance of the various welded connections in the deck. Significant debate exists among the bridge engineering community regarding the extent and necessity of such stringent fabrication practices, as limited research suggests that adequate fatigue resistance of orthotropic deck connections could be achieved by less fabrication intensive details and tolerance requirements. Recently, cost-effective fabrication of orthotropic deck details was explored for a lift bridge. Several rib-to-deck and rib-to-floor beam connections details were investigated that were fabricated employing cost-effective practices, where the extent of labor-intensive joint preparations and fit-up were varied by using different bevels, root openings and fit-ups. The ribs had rounded bottom and the floor beam was fitted all around the ribs, without any additional cut-out under the rib soffit and without any internal bulkhead plates. The ribs were connected to the deck plate with partial joint penetration (PJP) groove weld having variable penetration. This weld was fabricated both with and without a joint preparation under different heat input to control hot cracking, blow through and melt-through conditions. Both fillet- and PJP-welded details were investigated for the rib-to-floor beam connections. The influence of the different fabrication practices was subsequently evaluated by testing full-size specimens. The research provided valuable insight into the critical fabrication parameters and facilitated development of cost-effective connection details for orthotropic decks.

IBC 19-22: Centennial Bridge – A New Connection to the Historic Cabrillo Bridge in Balboa Park
Anthony Sanchez, PhD, P.E., Patrick Chang, and Jason Hong, Moffatt & Nichol, San Diego, CA

The Cabrillo Bridge, and many historic buildings at Balboa Park, were built in 1915 for the California-Panama Exposition to celebrate the opening of the Panama Canal. Over a hundred years later, the City of San Diego and the Plaza de Panama Committee, a philanthropic organization headed by Qualcomm founder Irwin Jacobs, is planning 80 million dollars of improvements for the park. A major feature is the “Centennial Bridge”, a new connection to the historic Cabrillo Bridge, which will allow the Plaza de Panama to again become pedestrian only, as the park founders intended. The bridge was both architecturally and structurally challenging.  Architecturally, the bridge must be visually compatible with the 103-year-old Cabrillo Bridge. It must display good architectural qualities and be visually interesting. But must also be subtle, to not distract from the beauty of the Cabrillo bridge. Structurally, the bridge must resist large radial and torsional forces from the horizontal curvature of 1/182’, which is 5x standard. The bridge must also resist large bending in the overhangs, which at 13’ long, are 3x standard. Finally, seismic forces must be resisted by the end piers, which are 500x stiffer than the interior piers. The designers used a “spine” girder, to conform to the curved alignment, provide a simple appearance, and keep costs reasonable, and shaped the columns to pay homage to the Cabrillo Bridge. In this paper, we will describe how we designed the bridge to meet the architectural and structural challenges, including design for torsion and seismic forces.

IBC 19-23: Steel Bridge Member Resistance – AASHTO Compared to Other International Codes
Terry Cakebread, BSc, Ceng., MICE, LS, New York, NY ; Steve Rhodes, Beng., MSc., Ceng., MICE, LS, Kingston-Upon-Thames, Surrey United Kingdom

This paper considers a truss bridge, where member resistance calculations have been performed to AASHTO 7th and 8th editions, Canadian Bridge Design standard CSA S6-14, Eurocode EN1993-2:2006 and Australian code AS4100-1998. Why are such different utilizations determined from each Code, when using the same loading regime? Why are some members disallowed, in certain Codes, merely on the basis of dimensions?  Which Codes are more or less conservative? Which of the AASHTO articles seem most adrift from these Anglophone counterparts? How are the utilizations affected by altering some of the analysis assumptions on which regular bridge designers differ? What are the critical design considerations for steel bridge members and which assumptions might affect design safety and efficiency? The paper explores these questions, giving full descriptions of the structure in question, assumptions made, and giving detailed references throughout.

IBC 19-24: NJDOT Sign Structure LRFD Design Standard Upgrades
George Zimmer, Rama Krishnagiri, P.E., and Steve Esposito, P.E., WSP , Lawrenceville, NJ ; Eddy Germain, P.E., and Xiaohua “Hannah” Cheng, P.E., New Jersey DOT, Ewing Township, NJ

NJDOT tasked WSP with updating their Sign Structure Standard Drawings and associated Design Manuals to comply with the 2015 AASHTO LRFD Specifications including the 2017 Interim Revisions. This was the first time that NJDOT sign structures would be designed by LRFD. A key component of this upgrade was the 130 MPH design wind speed for all new sign structures, which created an increase in wind pressure over the previously utilized 80 MPH design wind speed/pressure. This significant increase in wind speed presented many challenges in standardizing structures, sizing and grouping steel members for the Strength Limit State, maintaining Fatigue Category II resistance, satisfying fatigue detailing requirements and the sizing of foundations. Previously, the standards provided the option to select a spread footing or pile foundation for all sign structures, however due to the increase in wind load and the LRFD limiting criteria, these foundation types showed a significant increase in size for shallow foundations. To economize foundation size and avoid right of way and potential utility impacts, drilled shaft foundations were standardized and included for the first time for NJDOT sign structures. WSP performed extensive coordination with leading fabrication experts to implement the recommended AASHTO fatigue details into the standards to satisfy AASHTO requirements, meet fatigue criteria, and consider constructability. A standardized approach to analysis was a key component of this project, requiring extensive repetitive modeling, analysis and design of hundreds of sign structure configurations. We will also discuss the comparative differences of the older standards to the current standards.

IBC 19-25: Full-Scale Evaluation of the PA Flexbeam Bridge System
Robin Hendricks, Clay Naito, Ph.D., P.E., and Richard Sause, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA ; William Koller, Pennsylvania DOT, Oil City, PA; Christina Cercone, Ph.D., Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY

A feasibility study was conducted on an economical steel/concrete composite highway bridge system for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. The system, referred to as the FlexBeam system, is made from a series of split standard steel wide-flange shapes (steel WT sections) precast into a doubly reinforced concrete deck slab section. The prototype concrete deck section is 8 in. thick and consists of either a 30 in. wide single beam module or a 66 in. wide double beam module. It is the intention that each composite WT concrete-slab beam will be precast independently, delivered to the bridge site, erected on simply supported boundary conditions, and the concrete slabs of the adjacent WT-concrete-slab beams will be joined with a 6 in. wide high strength concrete longitudinal closure joint. This presentation examines the fabrication and full-scale performance of the FlexBeam system. A 50 ft long double module was designed in accordance with AASHTO LRFD 7th edition and PennDOT DM-4 Bridge requirements. The system is evaluated under service and strength load cases. Following the standard load cases the system is tested to failure under a shear dominant loading scenario and the interface failure mode is achieved. The system is found to meet the design requirements and the assumed shear transfer concept is found to be conservative. The design of the system, a summary of the construction, and the testing program and results are discussed.

IBC 19-26: Measurement and Use of Pile Set-Up in Design and Construction of the I-480 Valley View Bridge
Randy Thomas and Charles Winter, Jacobs, Milwaukee, WI ; William Banik, Walsh Construction, Crown Point, IN

The I-480 Valley View Bridge project includes the design and construction of a 4150-foot long, 200-foot tall, 15-span, steel girder interstate highway bridge over the Cuyahoga River Valley near Cleveland, Ohio. The project is being delivered by the Walsh Design-Build Team for the Ohio Department of Transportation, with Walsh Construction as the general contractor, and Jacobs (formerly CH2M) as the lead designer. Driven pile foundations are an important component of the project and are being used to support 11 hammerhead piers overlying fine-grained soils. The design seeks to exploit significant pile set-up, an increase in pile capacity with time, that is characteristic of the site. A pile test program was conducted during the design phase to quantify pile set-up and enable the optimization of pile designs. The test program involved installing 24 test (indicator) piles and conducting three static compressive load tests. Piles were subjected to short-term restrikes and long-term restrikes past 30 days. Analysis of dynamic data for end-of-drive and restrike events provided a measurement of set-up throughout the site. Internal strain gages installed in the statically loaded piles provided additional calibration of the dynamic data. The incorporation of set-up in the foundation design allowed for increased factored resistances, shorter drive lengths, and fewer piles. Depth-variable driving criteria were developed and used for production driving. The paper and presentation will highlight test pile program methodology, incorporation of data into project design, and use of depth-variable driving criteria in production.

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Workshops

W-3: Aesthetic Lighting, Public Art & Community Pride: A Unique Collaboration for Lighting a Toledo Landmark

Time: 8:00 – 9:00 AM

The glass-enclosed tower of Veterans Glass City Skyway became an instant symbol of Toledo and the centerpiece of ODOT’s bridge portfolio when it opened in 2007 and again when the lighting system was updated in 2018. This workshop will review the unique collaboration between ODOT, the design team and local artists to develop lighting content for the tower, including everything from football team colors to translating the visions of six artists into light.

Speaker: Faith Baum, HLB Lighting Design, New York, NY

W-4: Bridge Information Modeling

Time: 8:00 AM – 12:00 Noon

BIM for Bridges: An Integrated Approach from Design to Construction

As more contractors and government organizations require the use of BIM methodologies for their upcoming projects, Bentley is proposing the use of an integrated approach that covers the planning, design and further construction operations. This integrated approach represented in a federated 3D model guarantees the flow of information without any format translation with its subsequent possibility of losing valuable or critical information.

Speaker: Alexander Mabrich, P.E., Bentley Systems, Sunrise, FL

BIM for Better Bridge Design and Construction

Bridge design and construction is undergoing a paradigm Shift: to transition from putting information on electronic pieces of paper to putting information in 3D models and extracting construction documents from the models. These model-centric principles will provide accurate, fast, and dynamic bridge design and construction techniques that will dramatically improve productivity.

Speaker: Douglas Dunrud, P.E., WSP, Sacramento, CA

Modeling, Design and Analysis of Segmental Bridges from a BIM Perspective

As owners required projects to be done using a BIM methodology, modelers, designers, detailers and contractors resort to multiple solutions to achieve a true BIM project. Most of the times, these solutions are disconnected and a lot of rework needs to be done when going from one phase of the project to the next one, Bentley Systems will show how their integrated solutions can take a segmental bridge for the early stages of modeling, to design, detailing and construction planning using a standard format avoiding risky export and import file format operations.

Speaker: Alexander Mabrich, P.E., Bentley Systems, Sunrise, FL

BIM for on-Budget Bridge Megaprojects

Allplan, Inc.

This session will talk about the benefits and challenges of using 3D information modeling techniques for linear infrastructure megaprojects. We will delve into some of the common objections to using 3D BIM modeling such as: the learning curve, structural detailing, conflict detection, and collaboration. And finally, we will discuss technology solutions and best practices to solve the problems which cause megaprojects to be delayed and go over-budget.

Speakers: Mia Keay, Frank Holz, David Loughery, and Amy Patt, Allplan Inc., West Chester, PA

W-5: Bridge Load Rating, Posting and Permitting: Today and Tomorrow

Time: 9:30 AM – 12:00 Noon

Besides regulatory mandate, bridge load rating provides a critical piece of information for making management and operational decisions. When moving toward compliance, bridge owners have unique challenges and obstacles. They have to strike balance between their agency priorities, mitigating risks and preserving their assets. This Workshop is intended to provide awareness to bridge engineers and asset managers and it is expected that the attendees will gain knowledge of historical background, state of practice, and future direction.

Speakers: Lubin Gao, Ph.D., P.E., Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.; Amal Azzam, Ph.D., P.E., District DOT, Washington, D.C.; John Kattell, P.E., US Forest Service; Tuonglinh Warren, P.E., Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.

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