Tuesday, June 13, 2023
Design, Part 1 Session
IBC 23-11: The Architecture of the new Frederick Douglass Memorial Bridge
James Marks, RIBA RIAS Int’l Assoc. AIA, BEAM Architects, Dorset, Bridport United Kingdom; Keith Brownlie, BEAM Architects, Dorset, Bridport United Kingdom
The monumental new Frederick Douglass Memorial Bridge is Washington DC’s largest capital infrastructure project to date and forms a bold new intervention on DC’s iconic skyline. Spanning over the Anacostia River between Anacostia and the Navy Yards, the bridge provides a direct route to South Capitol Street and the United States Capitol, replacing the adjacent structurally obsolete South Capitol Street Bridge. Like the structure that it replaces, the new bridge is a tribute to Frederick Douglass, the celebrated social reformer, abolitionist and statesman.
The new 1200ft bridge deck is supported from three pairs of tall steel arches that bear onto concrete V-shaped piers to describe a fluid serpentine line of structure. The through-arch arrangement provides a dynamic gateway to the monumental core of the city and provides a rare and significant alteration to the DC skyline that mediates between urban development on the Capitol side and parkland setting on the Anacostia side. The project includes two landscaped traffic ovals that mediate between the orientation of the bridge and the city street grid and generous pedestrian overlooks that cantilever out from the NMU paths between the arches to form external rooms over the river as social gathering spaces for the City.
The paper is written by the Bridge Architect. It will focus on aesthetic aspects of the proposals, including evolution of the concept, integration of the new structure into Washington’s L’Enfant Plan, visual impact, component shaping and provision of high-quality public realm on the bridge.
IBC 23-12: Computational Design of Complex Structures with Faster Finite Element Analysis Programs
Jeff Svatora,P.E., HDR, Prior Lake, MN
HDR has developed substantially faster in-house finite element analysis programs. The approaches used to achieve these speed improvements will be discussed. The program is being used to analyze tied arches in preliminary design with refined floor systems and influence surfaces in under 5 seconds. HDR has paired this dramatic reduction in analysis runtimes with computational design routines to size various members and geometric aspects of arch, cable stayed, and steel plate girder bridges.
IBC 23-13: A State-of-the-Art Analysis and Design of a Continuous Seven Spans Post-Tensioned Bridge with Innovative Seismic Isolation Bearings
Sameh Salib, Ph.D., P.Eng., BDS, P.E., WSP Canada, Thornhill, Ontario Canada; Maged Ibrahim, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., P.E., FEC, WSP Canada, Thornhill, Ontario Canada
A continuous post-tensioned bridge over seven spans, 27m each, was constructed in Quito, Ecuador. Located in one of the most active seismic/volcanic regions of South America, several challenges were faced during the bridge design. The superstructure is supported on piers with two separate circular columns/caissons without a pier-cap or framing into the deck. This substructure system was adopted to satisfy the required vertical clearance for the arrival level below. Consequently, the post-yield behaviour of pier reinforcement could not be allowed as a hysteretic energy dissipation system since the formation of plastic hinges at such piers impairs the control over deck displacement and the stability of the bridge deck. A non-linear time history analysis accompanied by a parametric study was carried out considering different types of base isolation bearings. To achieve an optimum seismic performance, an innovative seismic isolation system was developed along with a full-scale testing of the proposed bearings at the University of New York at Buffalo. Further, the limits on the bridge movement due to adjacent terminal buildings and having no expansion joints within the bridge length exposed the need to minimize the overall longitudinal movement of the bridge due to creep and shrinkage. Therefore, the proposed construction stages and bearings conditions at each stage were designed and executed to satisfy the desired behaviour. The bridge has been serving for 10 years with satisfactory performance under various seismic events. Herein, the developed three-dimensional finite element model (3D-FEM), seismic analysis, staged construction and the bearings experimental program are presented.
IBC 23-14: Perquimans River S Bridge Replacement
Timothy Noles, Hardesty & Hanover, LLC, Raleigh, NC ; Nathan Wiggins, P.E., Hardesty & Hanover, LLC, Raleigh, NC; David Peterson, Rummel, Klepper, & Kahl, Raleigh, NC
In the first Design-Build contract for a movable bridge awarded by the NCDOT, the historic “S” Bridge over the Perquimans River in Hertford, North Carolina was replaced with a modern structure designed to meet contemporary design requirements while preserving key aspects of the historic bridge.
Inspection and Evaluation, Part 1
Session Chair: Rachel Stiffler, Vector Corrosion Technologies, Canonsburg, PA
This session will showcase different types of nondestructive testing methods used on 2 Post Tensioned bridges in Virginia. Impact Echo, Ground penetrating radar, ultrasonic tomography and pulse velocity.
All data will be used to determine repair options if needed.
IBC 23-15: Seismic Strengthening of Bridge Columns with FRP In Lieu Of Steel Jacketing
Clyde Ellis, Structural Technologies, San Francisco, CA; Tarek Alkhrdaji, Structural Technologies, Columbia, MD
Engineering and construction communities are familiar with steel jacketing as an approach to seismic strengthening. There are many concerns and challenges associated with this approach, including the schedule duration, placement, geometry of the existing condition, and retrofit service life. Exploring the Caltrans design-build project on the US 50 corridor, the paper will demonstrate how the design-build team was able to leverage innovative collaboration to provide schedule and cost benefits, and long-term value to the owner.
IBC 23-16: Nondestructive Evaluation of Post Tensioned Ducts of the Eltham Bridge
Shane Boone, Ph.D., Bridge Diagnostics, Inc., Louisville, CO; Annette Adams, Virginia DOT, Fredericksburg, VA; Jeffrey Cohen, Bridge Diagnostics, Inc., Louisville, CO
Over the course of 18 months in 2021 and 2022, BDI inspected over 5 miles of post tensioned (PT) ducts on the bridge Carrying US-33 over the Pamunkey River west of West Point, VA (Eltham Bridge) utilizing a multi-technology approach of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). With a permanent lane closure established, the AASHTO bulb tee girders were accessed with under bridge inspection trucks (UBIT). Ground penetrating Radar (GPR) was utilized to locate the harped PT ducts and Impact Echo (IE) and ultrasonic tomography (MIRA) were used to identify potential voids in the ducts utilizing a combined acoustic analysis technique. Specific locations were identified to validate testing results, and multiple ducts were excavated to confirm void locations as well as collect grout samples for chemical testing (Chloride, Sulfate, pH, and carbonation). The data will be utilized by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) to determine preservation activities for the structure.
IBC 23-17: Detection of Post-Tension Grout Defects in Bridges
Brian Pailes, Ph.D., P.E., NACE CP Specialist, Vector Corrosion Services, Tampa, FL; Ben Armitage, NDT Corporation, Sterling, MA; Natallia Shanahan, Vector Corrosion Services, Tampa, FL
The Varina-Enon (VE) Bridge located near Richmond, Virginia carries I-295 over the James River. The VE Bridge is a cable stay bridge that implements post-tensioned (PT) in the super- and sub-structure. There is vertical internal PT in the piers, external longitudinal PT in the superstructure, and internal transverse PT in the deck. Throughout the world, it has been discovered that the grouting of PT has been plagued with defects like voids and soft grout. These issues can cause serious and very accelerated corrosion deterioration of the PT strands. What makes the issue even more challenging is that voids and soft grout defects in PT are impossible to detect through standard inspection methods. Therefore they are often not discovered until serious damage to the structure has occurred, often tendon failure. VDOT hired VCS and wholly owned subsidiary NDT Corporation (VCS/NDT Corp.) to survey the PT of the VE Bridge to locate and quantity any grout defects.
VCS/NDT Corp. have developed an effective tool that uses both impact echo and pulse velocity (IE/PV) to non-destructively test both internal and external PT tendons to identify the location and extent of voids and soft grout issues. This method has been proven to work on many previous PT bridge structures and this paper will present how this approach works and show actual results from the VE bridge. VCS/NDT Corp. was able to accurately survey the PT elements and determine the location of the grouting defects so that the owner could remediate these issues.
IBC 23-18: Structural Design Challenges for an Architecturally Constrained Bridge
Ryan Jenkins, Ph.D., P.E., HDR, Pittsburgh, PA; Melissa Werner, HDR, Pittsburgh, PA; Kevin O’Connor, HDR, Pittsburgh, PA
Designing a bridge is always a challenge, but when it services a marquee, $1.4 billion airport terminal and is built on top of an existing airport taxiway, it adds an entirely new set of design and analysis challenges. The new Pittsburgh International Airport terminal, currently under construction, consists of three stories, and the approach roadway is required to split and weave into three, vertically stacked roadway sections. This culminates in a two-level, 1300’ bridge structure facilitating four travel lanes and a 32’ sidewalk area adjacent to the terminal building.
Practical challenges to design include addressing drainage on a bridge with a level profile grade and designing trapezoidal box-girder field splices at in-plane rectangular straddle cross girders, which are also at the maximum negative moment regions. Structural analysis challenges include a curved-to-tangent simple span, with one end on a straddle cross girder, and the effects of a two-level bridge.
The sharp curve-to-tangent alignment on a simple span bridge causes service and fatigue uplift at a disc bearing, and the end straddle cross girder required nonlinear analysis to evaluate stability during construction. The most challenging analysis challenge is caused by the two levels. Because of their interaction, especially for thermal effects, the substructure and foundation required detailed, refined analysis. In addition to analyzing the entire structure in a single, comprehensive finite element model, a detailed soil-structure interaction was considered. This included calibrating the modeled foundation stiffness by iterating between the global analysis model and foundation analysis model.
IBC 23-19: Alternative Approach to Design for High Shear Demands in Rock Sockets
Lawrence Rolwes, Jr., HNTB, Arlington, VA
It is common strategy to “socket” drilled shafts into rock to develop lateral or axial capacity where overburden soils are shallow and or relatively weak compared with the underlying rock formation. Where drilled shaft foundations are incorporated with the substructure units to resist lateral loads such as seismic or vessel collision forces through frame action, large moment demands develop at the base of the shafts. Current methods of numerically modeling soil structure interaction using p-y techniques often result in shear forces near the top of the rock sockets that are significantly larger than the applied lateral forces. These demand forces are typically addressed from a capacity perspective by increasing concrete strength, increasing shear reinforcement, and/or increasing the shaft and socket diameters. All these approaches have cost and constructability implications.
Shear capacity within rock sockets has traditionally been evaluated using beam theory methods. Considering the mechanics and geometric characteristics of load transfer through the socket and into the supporting material, it is apparent these elements are better characterized as D- Regions for which a strut-and-tie approach is an appropriate tool for assessing the socket capacity. Such a solution results in slightly more longitudinal steel but much less transverse reinforcement leading to a more cost effective and constructible solution.
IBC 23-20: Delivering Value and Resiliency in Bridge and Foundation River Construction
Gregory Ricks, P.E., HNTB, Parsippany, NJ; Laura Spann, P.E, Haley & Aldrich, Parsippany, NJ; Henry Meyers, Anselmi & DeCicco, Inc., Maplewood, NJ; Steven Flormann, HNTB, Parsippany, NJ
The construction of this bridge utilized innovative value engineering and construction techniques to reduce construction duration, reduce overall cost, and provide improved performance. The Route 46 Eastbound bridge over the flood-prone Passaic River was being re-constructed while the existing adjacent Route 46 Westbound bridge was to remain in service. The Eastbound bridge was originally designed to have three piers in the river, even though the existing Westbound bridge has only two; this was done to maintain distance between new pier construction and existing Westbound shallow foundations, minimizing potential for settlement of the existing bridge. A value engineering process was undertaken to reduce the number of new Eastbound piers in the river from three to two. The elimination of the center pier in the river improved the hydraulic characteristics, minimized scour potential, and reduced the length of the temporary trestle, reducing environmental impacts and potential for delays. To mitigate settlement concerns when installing new deep foundations adjacent to the existing Westbound foundations, fully cased drilled shafts were utilized, minimizing vibrations and concerns related to hole stability and, thus, potential settlements. A pile dynamic load test was performed utilizing the APPLE test, which allowed for efficient testing of the shaft design with limited available skin friction resistance (no rock socket). The abutments, founded on drilled shafts, were detailed to be semi-integral.
IBC 23-21: I-895 over Herring Run – Erosion & Scour Mitigation
Laura Magoon, P.E., RK&K, LLP, Baltimore, MD; David Black, P.E., RK&K, LLP, Baltimore, MD; Ruel Sabellano, MDTA, Baltimore, MD; Peter Mattejat, MDTA, Baltimore, MD
The Maryland Transportation Authority’s (MDTA) I-895 bridge crossing Herring Run suffered a severe scour event in November 2018 that endangered the southbound bridge’s piers. Upon notice, MDTA immediately began corrective measures to mitigate the scour at the bridge. This included two-plus years of responding to multiple large storm events, increased stream bed/bridge monitoring, non-destructive testing, collection of soil borings, four separate authorizations from USACE and Maryland’s Department of the Environment for waterway construction permitting, hydraulics modeling, scour countermeasure design, and several mobilizations for emergency scour mitigation construction. The first of the three-span steel beam bridge was constructed in 1956 with piers founded on spread footings then other spans to widen bridge were constructed in 1968 and 2007 with pile supported foundations. The project location is in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province where the riverbed is dominated by sand, small gravels and cobble stones. The river flow generally exceeds the riverbed’s ability to resist movement. The fortunate accessibility to 100 years of aerial imagery, previous bridge construction plans, proximity of a USGS real-time gage, and 2-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling enabled the team to make informed decisions for immediate design needs and paths to protect the bridge infrastructure for years to come. The multi-disciplinary design team of structural/geotechnical/water resource engineers, environmental scientists, and construction specialists combined with MDTA’s managers provided robust bridge infrastructure protection consisting of grout bags, a gabion wall, and relocating the upstream sand bar to reduce the angle of attack.
Session Chair: Pat Kane, P.E., GPI, Pittsburgh, PA
Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) continues to be a driving force in the industry as owners try to limit user impacts and increase safety for motorists and construction workers. Engineers are continuing to develop new ideas and strategies to improve upon ABC techniques. This session will explore design and construction innovations that used an SPMT for an unbraced network arch; the widening of an Interstate bridge that included precast substructure components with drilled micropiles and precast deck panels; and a bridge replacement using a precast slab on girder system placed using an SPMT.
IBC 23-22: Accelerated Construction of Unbraced Network Arch Bridge Using SPMTs
Mike LaViolette, HDR, Omaha, NE; John Belcher, Michigan DOT, Lansing, MI; Matt Longfield, HDR, Lansing, MI
The 2nd Avenue Bridge consists of a 245 ft long, unbraced, network tied arch span which will carry vehicular traffic, bicycles and pedestrians in separate dedicated lanes over I-94 in Detroit, MI.
Assembly of the steel-concrete hybrid bridge skeleton was performed in a staging area approximately 500 feet from the final bridge location. Installation of the bridge skeleton required the use of three separate accelerated bridge construction (ABC) operations in a single project:
- SPMTs were to transport the bridge skeleton from the staging area to the rear of the south abutment
- A skidrail system was used to launch the bridge skeleton over the south abutment abutment
- SPMTs were once again used to transport the bridge across the freeway
Following the bridge move and prior to re-opening traffic on I-94, the tied arch span was then lowered approximately 16 feet onto the permanent abutments.
This presentation will discuss the assembly of the bridge skeleton in the staging area and ABC installation of the bridge which was completed during a short closure of I-94 in July 2022.
IBC 23-23: ABC Widening of I-376 Westbound Bridge using Precast Elements
Jason DeFlitch, P.E., and Keith Michael, P.E., SAI Consulting Engineers, Pittsburgh, PA; Brian Rampulla, P.E., Pennsylvania DOT, Bridgeville, PA
The bridge deck of one of the busiest commuter routes in Pittsburgh, I-376 Westbound (known locally as the Parkway East) was widened to provide an additional full width deceleration/exit lane during a 15-day closure of the right-most through lane of the bridge. ABC techniques including the use of precast deck panels, Ultra High-Performance Concrete (UHPC) and precast substructure elements were used. The tight geometric site constraints of this urban setting required the use of precast.
IBC 23-24: A Very Rapid Bridge Replacement
Yen Wu, P.E., MASc., Arup, Toronto, Ontario Canada; Shahzal Nisar, Moot MacDonald Canada; Ken Bontius, Arup, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
The conventional methods of construction are the dominant techniques for today’s bridge construction practice. However, such methods may impose significant disruptions to traffic. The industry professionals, in collaboration with the owners are adopting innovative construction techniques to reduce the timeline of traffic disruption from several years to just a few weekends. One of these innovative techniques, the Rapid Bridge Replacement (RBR), was used for the superstructure replacement of the overpass at Highway 400 & Finch Avenue West as part of the Finch West LRT (FWLRT) project. While the project was procured by Metrolinx in a Public-Private Partnership (PPP), the structure is owned and retained by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO). The existing northbound and southbound superstructures were removed and replaced using the RBR method during two full-weekend closures of Highway 400 and Finch Avenue West. Each twin superstructure, consisting of a two-span continuous slab-on-girder system, was constructed in nearby areas on falsework, completed with a semi-integral conversion, barrier walls, and a new waterproofing system. During the full weekend closures, the superstructures were transported and erected in place by a self-propelled modular transporter (SPMT) and finished with new precast approach slabs, asphalt pavement, and lane markings. This safe and efficient method saved two years of staged construction, including highway widening to accommodate the traffic staging, reducing the impact to traffic and the community, and ultimately contributing to a smaller environmental footprint for the project. On June 22, 2020, at 5 a.m., the new bridge opened to unrestricted traffic.
Pedestrian/Special Purpose Bridges
Session Chair: Jonathan McHugh, Gannett Fleming, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA
This session features a collection of truly unique and innovative pedestrian/special purpose bridges from around the globe. With varying subjects, crossing type, and aesthetic solutions, these structures will amaze and entertain the audience while presenting unparalleled technical content.
Please join us for a glimpse into the emerging topics and creative visions which showcase the future of this exciting industry.
IBC 23-25: Making Connections at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport
Jennifer Whiteside, P.E., Gannett Fleming, Greenwood Village, CO; Pouya Banibayat, Gannett Fleming, Los Angeles, CA; Andrew Ward, P.Eng., Gannett Fleming, Toronto, Ontario Canada
Bridges supporting taxiways and runways that carry commercial aircraft remain relatively rare. Due to increased air travel demand, combined with increased development around airports limiting airport expansion, the necessity of these bridges is escalating. Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, which services more than 400,000 takeoffs and landings per year, is in the midst of a paramount project to expand access between the north and south field runways through the construction of Taxiway “U”. The new taxiway will pass over several of the airport’s main access roadways and the existing PHX Sky Train® automated people mover.
This alternative delivery project will include two new bridges for the taxiway, which are designed for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Group VI loading, generally controlled by the Airbus A380 airplane. Current FAA guidance on the design of bridges carrying aircraft loading is limited to a few bullet points and a reference to AASHTO’s Load and Resistance Factor Design 7th Edition. In addition to these two documents, the American Concrete Institute (ACI) has published ACI 343R-95: Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures, which includes a section on runway bridge loads. This document was last updated in 2004. This leaves much of the application of live load up to the designer. This presentation will explore these challenges and discuss our team’s solutions.
IBC 23-26: An Engineered Timber Bridge for the Seven First Nations
Vanessa Wan, P.Eng., M.Eng., Stantec, Montréal, Quebec Canada
More than 10,000 people living north of the Berens River in Ontario live in isolation and without essential services. Currently, the winter roads last only 2 to 6 weeks a year and is a critical for the transport of people, goods and materials to these communities. The Government of Canada and the Seven First Nations communities wants to build an all-season road access to their communities and the Berens River Bridge is the gateway to this new road development. They wanted a bridge, but they have let us determine the best solution for them. This did not mean that we had a “carte blanche”. After a first stage of solutions and location studies, the Seven First Nations chose a two-lane engineered wooden bridge with a sidewalk. The second stage has put us in the middle of the challenges: some anticipated and others that turned out to be in the process of design. Being in a remote region, it was necessary to think about prefabrication, simplified connections, easy maintenance and the opportunities for First Nations to ensure the sustainability of the structure themselves. The 90-m engineered timber arch with cross hangers was chosen for its possibility of being assemble off-site and then transported to its final position. These are some of the many criterias we had to consider into our bridge design and analysis.
IBC 23-27: Park Union Bridge – Complex Pedestrian Bridge Design and Analysis
Lana Potapova, B.Eng, M.Eng, P.E., Arup, New York, NY; Matt Carter, Arup
Arup is the Engineer of Record for the Park Union Bridge, opened to pedestrians in July 2021, connecting the U.S. Olympic & Paralympic Museum to America the Beautiful Park and Downtown Colorado Springs.
Called the rip curl for its cresting design, the footbridge spans 250ft over active rail lines. The 300 ton steel superstructure is designed to both integrate with the aesthetic vision for the museum and to minimize impact on rail operations during construction. From bridge inception, we leveraged our parametric 3D work environment to communicate visually and explain crucial aspects of the bridge behavior with key collaborators including Diller Scofdio + Renfro and Anderson Mason Dale architectural team; City of Colorado Springs client; Union Pacific railroad; Kiewit general contractor; and, King Fabrication steel fabricator. This communication style continuously supported the architectural vision for the bridge, and allowed to preserve the sculptural “floating” nature of the bridge while presenting a pragmatic and sensible design.
IBC 23-28: A People-First Approach to a Modular FRP Pedestrian Bridge
Thomas Osborne, RIBA, Knight Architects, London, United Kingdom
The ‘Flow’ bridge is an innovative new standard footbridge designed by Knight Architects for Network Rail (the UK Rail Operator) as part of their nationwide drive to improve safety at level crossings. The brief sought to find an alternative to the heavy steel standard footbridge commonly used across the railway network. The project challenged the design team to deliver a user-focused footbridge that was cheaper and quicker to produce than a steel equivalent, and adaptable to a wide range of locations. The unique properties of modern composites resulted in a concept design which is lightweight, strong, and cost-effective. This in turn allowed the use of concrete free foundations.
Improvements to the bridge geometry and parapets create a radically enhanced user experience, when compared to the standard through-girder. A modular concept design was developed in fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) using parametric modelling tools, which allowed for a highly collaborative process and real-time design evolution. The result is a standardised product which accurately reflects the concept, whilst offering a variety of configurations to respond to different site characteristics. The innovative procurement process meant concept to completion of full-size prototype took less than a year and was achieved largely remotely.
Digital Delivery/BIM/3D Modeling
Session Chair: Jonathan McHugh, Gannett Fleming, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA
While once seen as a future efficiency or even a luxury, digital delivery and 3D modeling have evolved into absolute necessities in the bridge engineering toolbox. While many owners and their consultants are working diligently to optimize and standardize these tools, our presenters have a wide range of experiences and case studies to share to help further the knowledge base in these fields and smooth the learning curve for the industry,
IBC 23-29: Bridging the Digital Divide
Joe Brenner, P.E., Michael Baker International, Harrisburg, PA; Brad Wagner, Michigan DOT, Lansing, MI; Marcia Yockey, P.E., Michigan DOT, Lansing, MI
Michigan DOT (MDOT) is moving forward with Digital Delivery and let its first pilot delivering the digital bridge model as the contract document in August 2022. This paper will cover the development of this industry leading pilot including reimagining how design information is presented, engagements, and training.
In place of the typical 2D plan set, a 3D model enhanced with annotations, model attributions, saved views, 2D details, and links to supplemental documents is accessible from a computer or tablet. The model was created using a combination of OpenBridge Modeler, ProStructures, and OpenRoads Designer and will be viewed in the field using Bentley Synchro.
Developing the new format required evaluating the purpose of each detail in a conventional plan set. Throughout the project, the team worked directly with contractors, consultants, and MDOT to determine what information the legal documents ultimately need. Additional engagements with the contractors and fabricators focused on how they could use the digital information in the field and in their native software.
Successful use of the model depends on training and communication. Project scope contains extensive training for all disciplines from design through construction including live sessions, on-demand videos, and guides demonstrating the differences between traditional and Digital Delivery workflows.
MDOT is investing in Digital Delivery to create a more efficient process that better communicates design information to the contractor. Directly sharing design data will minimize mistakes in the field leading to fewer claims and improved relationships between clients, consultants, and contractors – valuable returns for any organization.
IBC 23-30: 3D Modeling: Complex Bridge Construction and Emergency Repairs
Zacharie Stonestreet, E.I.T., Michael Baker International, New Brighton, PA
Complex bridge types like tied-arches and cable-stayed bridges present many geometrical challenges to both the design teams in the office and the contractors in the field. These challenges often don’t present themselves until the construction or the repair of these bridges, and they are potentially catastrophic when the condition of the bridge is on the brink of failure. 3D modeling is very beneficial as it assists engineers in the geometric design of components and creating drawings for fabrication and construction, while providing other benefits, such as detecting interferences prior to construction and conveying design methods with the renderings produced from the model. 2 case studies will be presented to illustrate how the 3D models have proven to be an integral part in the design process. The first case study is a 3D construction phasing model that was developed for one of several complex bridge alternatives for the US-51 Bridge Replacement project, which is a concrete superstructure cable-stayed bridge spanning the Ohio River from Kentucky to Illinois. The second case study is the 3D model that was developed and utilized to design the temporary and permanent repairs of the Hernando de Soto Bridge emergency repair.
IBC 23-31: Database driven design of a large-scale bridge
Sean LeCoultre, P.E., Ramboll Finland Oy, Finland; Ilkka Ojala; Eero Särkkä; Augustin Ceillier
Computational design has gained traction in the infrastructure industry in recent years. The link between parametric tools, FEM, and BIM software allows integration of parametric design practices directly into the structural and fabrication design. By linking the project design processes, many tasks can then be automated. Even though creating a bridge model from a script is not new, the detailing of these models usually stays a labor intensive and time-consuming process. The detailing hence stays on the critical path of a project delivery schedule. Similarly, keeping the dataflow consistent between the different models can become a challenge on tight schedules.
The Kruunuvuori Bridge is a 1,2km long cable stay bridge that will be built in the heart of the Helsinki metropolitan area. Once completed, it will be the longest bridge in Finland and one of the longest bridges in the world built only for public transport and pedestrian traffic.
The project has been an opportunity to push design automation further by having a holistic workflow integrating analysis and detailing. The development of a series of processes and tools allowed generation of a fully detailed BIM model in a few seconds: from a common database driving both the analysis and BIM models, a precambered model of the bridge is generated that can be used directly for fabrication without any labor intensive and timely hand detailing. The automated approach allows more tasks to be treated in parallel, hence shortening the delivery schedule. Similarly, changes in the design can be implemented “instantly.”
This workshop is sponsored by the AASHTO Committee on Bridges and Structures (COBS) Advisory Committee to the IBC. The Advisory Committee works in cooperation with the IBC to help COBS address their priorities, particularly with regard to advancing the bridge state-of-the-art and effectively implementing new and updated AASHTO bridge specifications. As represented in the agenda below, the workshop agenda features recent work from various COBS technical committees.
T-3 Seismic Design (8:00-8:30 AM)
- New Seismic Map
- Thomas Murphy, Ph.D., P.E., S.E., Modjeski and Masters
- Guidelines for Performance-Based Seismic Design of Highway Bridges
- Thomas Murphy, Ph.D., P.E., S.E., Modjeski and Masters
T-5 Loads and Load Distribution (8:30-8:50 AM)
- Thermal Expansion
- Francesco Russo, Ph.D., P.E., Russo Structural Services
T-8 Moveable Bridges (8:50-9:20 AM)
- Inspection Element Updates for Moveable Bridges
- Jim Phillips, P.E., Hardesty and Hanover
T-9 Bridge Preservation (9:20-9:40 AM)
- Guidelines for Corrosion Protection of Steel Bridges Using Duplex Coating Systems
- Peter Ault, P.E., KTA-Tator
T-10 Concrete Bridges (9:40-10:00 AM)
- Ultrahigh Performance Concrete
- Thomas Murphy, Ph.D., P.E., S.E., Modjeski and Masters
T-12 Structural Supports for Signs (10:00-10:10 am)
- Sunsetting the SLTS
- Jason Hastings, MCE, P.E., Delaware DOT
T-13 Culverts (10:10-10:20 AM)
- Load Distribution Changes
- Jason Hastings, MCE, P.E., Delaware DOT
T-14 Steel Bridge Design (10:20-11:40 AM)
- AASHTO LRFD Changes from Fracture Critical Members to Non-redundant Steel Tension Members, Structurally Redundant Members, and Internally Redundant Members
- Michael Grubb, P.E., M. A. Grubb and Associates
- Updated AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration Standard, S10.1, Steel Bridge Erection Specification
- Brian Witte, P.E., Parsons
- New AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration Standard G14.2, Guidelines for Field Repairs and Retrofits of Steel Bridges
- Kyle Smith, P.E., S.E., GPI
- New stability guidelines
- Francesco Russo, Ph.D., P.E., Russo Structural Services
T-17 Metals Fabrication (11:40 AM-12:00 PM)
- Steel Bridge Fabrication Specification and LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications
- Heather Gilmer, Pennoni, Pittsburgh, PA
W04: Combined Workshop
Understanding FHWA Requirement for NDT on Fracture Critical Members Fabricated from AASHTO M244 Grade 100 Steel and the Coating Systems used to Remediate these Bridges
Moderator: Lake Barrett, Jr., KTA-Tator Inc., Pittsburgh, PA
This goal of this workshop is to provide an update on the cutting-edge technologies being utilized in today’s bridge coatings and specifically address the coating issues seen in fracture critical members made of ASTM A514/A517 steel (M244 Grade 100). This discussion will include an overview of the FHWA’s requirements and the process to rehabilitate. This panel discussion will include the insight of leading owners, engineers and specialty inspection firms who are dealing with these challenges in real time “today”. Audience participation will be strongly encouraged, and the use of lessons learned from bridge case studies will enhance the discussion.
- Jennifer Laning, PE: TranSystems
- Michael Brown, Ph.D., P.E., Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates
- Frank Russo, Ph.D., P.E., Russo Structural Services
- Pete Ault, P.E., KTA-Tator
- Jamie Hilton, KTA-Tator
Protective Coatings 101
Tony Serdenes, GPI, Columbia, MD; Charles Brown
The workshop will provide an overview of an industrial protective coatings project, including the evaluation of assets, design considerations, containment selection, surface preparation selection, material selection, ambient conditions, and basic quality assurance/control techniques. Discussions will focus on all aspects of corrosion, design, coatings, specifications, contractors, quality control/quality assurance, and follow-up Maintenance. We will highlight typical inspection instruments used on a coatings project for ambient conditions, surface preparation, and coating application.
Bridge Load Rating and Posting: Putting everything together
Lubin Gao, Ph.D., P.E., USDOT/FHWA, Washington, DC; Francesco Russo, Ph.D., P.E., Russo Structural Services, PA
Previous bridge load rating and posting workshops conducted in 2021 and 2022 at IBC discussed about vehicular loadings applied on highway bridges and resistance of members of a bridge structure. Those two components together with the permanent load effects represent the three primary terms at the right side of the load rating factor equation. This workshop will focus on how to put everything together to produce a valid load rating analysis package. The following are the focused topics in this workshop:
- Collection of information required to perform a load rating analysis;
- Structural analysis to compute load effects due to permanent and live loads;
- Calculation of load rating factors that sometimes requires an iterative numerical analysis;
- Considerations in selecting analysis tools; and
- Preparation of a load rating analysis package that involves quality management.
The target audience is bridge and structure engineers from transportation agencies and consulting firms. After attending this workshop, participants will get familiar with basic requirements, common methods of analysis, and the processes and procedures involved in bridge load rating and posting.