IWC Executive Committee
W. Bernahl Enterprises Ltd.
Toyota Motor North America
Electric Power Research Institute
Jeff Easton, P.E., Ph.D.
WesTech Engineering, Inc.
Michele Funk, P.E.
James (Jay) Harwood
Derek Henderson, P.E.
Duke Energy Corporation
William Kennedy, P.E.
Jane Kucera, Conference Chair
Nalco Water, an Ecolab Company
McKim & Creed
Burns & McDonnell
Paul Pigeon, P.E.
Golder Associates, Inc.
Scott Quinlan, P.E.
Colleen Scholl, P.E.
Patricia M. Scroggin-Wicker, P.E.
Burns & McDonnell
Michael Baker International
Michael J. Soller, P.E., CPC, Conference Chair
Bradley D. Wolf, P.E.
Berkeley Research Group, LLC
Since 1940 the Engineers’ Society of Western Pennsylvania has sponsored the IWC. The event is also supported by over 50 member companies who participate as members of the IWC Advisory Council. The companies represent the leading water treatment service companies, OEMs engineering firms, consultants and chemical suppliers in the industry.
World leader in gases, technologies, services and research for heavy industry and health care. Present in 80 countries, employees 68,000 employees and serves more than 3 million customers and patients. Air Liquide’s core business is in oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and argon.
Shan Sundaram, P.E.
AMBI-Design, Inc. is an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of large, custom designed water treatment systems incorporating ion exchange and membrane technologies.
Aquatech exists to improve our customer’s profitability, sustainability and performance by understanding their holistic water needs and implementing long term plans to meet growth goals. Aquatech provides design build and operation and maintenance services to assure reliable, sustainable water supply and environmental compliance allowing our customers to focus on their core business. Aquatech is OEM technologies solution provider including clarification, filtration, ion exchange, UF, RO and EDI membrane, biological and evaporation.
Athlon Solutions provides industrial water, process and finished fuel additive chemicals and engineering services to the Refining, Petrochemical, Fertilizer and Power industries. Our 50 year history in industrial water, process and finished fuel treatment offers an experienced engineering based approach to address our customer’s unique challenges. Athlon Solutions provides our customers operational confidence by safely delivering high-quality local services, corporate technical support, R&D innovation, supply and delivery efficiencies and effective communication.
Avista Technologies provides specialty chemicals for membrane separation systems including reverse osmosis (RO), microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF). Products include NSF certified RoQuest coagulants and Vitec antiscalants, membrane cleaners and EPA Registered RoCide biocides. Avista also provides off-site cleaning and laboratory services including: membrane autopsies, cleaning studies, foulant analyses, and coagulant and antiscalant recommendations from site-specific water samples.
Baker Hughes is a $25B USO company that serves the worldwide oil and natural gas industry with reservoir consulting and products and services for drilling, formation evaluation, completion and production. Our expertise and technology is utilized successfully in unconventional hydrocarbon recovery such as coal bed methane, shale gas and gas storage, together with projects aimed at carbon reduction, such as carbon dioxide sequestration and geothermal wells.
Baker Hughes Downstream Chemicals provides Baker Petrolite chemical programs and services that address a wide range of processing, water management and finished product quality challenges in hydrocarbon processing facilities, fuel terminals and pipelines.
Key chemical program offerings for hydrocarbon processors include process treatments, plus programs for cooling water systems, boilers, and wastewater treatment. Our specialty fuel additives can also increase the value of crude oils and finished fuels, and reduce operating and maintenance problems caused by sulfur and metals contamination of heavy fuels burned in facility boilers, process heaters and gas turbines.
Barr is a leading consulting/design firm of about 1,000 employees with offices throughout the US and Canada. Barr has extensive experience with water management/treatment projects in the mining, power, and industrial sectors.
HG Sanjay, Ph.D., P.E.
Founded in 1898, Bechtel is one of the world’s premier engineering, construction, and project management companies. Our 45,000 employees are teamed with customers, partners, and suppliers on a wide range of projects in nearly 46 countries. Bechtel has completed more than 25,000 projects in 160 countries on all seven continents, including Hoover Dam, the Channel Tunnel, Hong Kong International Airport, the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, the reconstruction of Kuwait’s oil fields after the Gulf War, Jubail industrial city, and the Alma aluminum smelter.
Michael Soller, P.E., CPC, DBIA
Bowen is a self-performing general contractor delivering projects as EPC and bid-build. Our self-perform services include site, civil, structural, boilermaker and mechanical construction. With over 50 years serving the Water/Wastewater and Energy/ Industrial Markets, Bowen is your nationwide industrial water & wastewater construction expert. Bowen has constructed over 1,000 treatment facilities, and has pretreatment, phys-chem, biological, UV, pump station, and evaporator experience. Call us to get the most Resourceful, and Responsive construction firm bringing you the best Results.
Brown and Caldwell is a full-service, employee-owned environmental engineering, consulting, and construction management firm offering a full suite of industrial water treatment services including life-cycle delivery of environmental projects from upfront planning and permitting through construction, operations, and maintenance. We are an industry leader in water stewardship and resilience and provide long-term sustainable solutions to emerging contaminants such as PFAS. We bring our clients technical excellence, creativity, and responsiveness translating directly to effective solutions and cost savings for you.
Founded in 1898, Burns & McDonnell is a full-service engineering, construction, environmental and consulting solutions firm.
The company’s multi-disciplined staff of more than 3,000 includes engineers, architects, contractors, planners, estimators, economists, technicians and scientists, representing virtually all design disciplines. Burns & McDonnell plans, designs, permits, constructs and manages facilities all over the world with one mission in mind — to make our clients successful.
ChemTreat is one of the world’s largest providers of water treatment products & services. We develop customized programs with sustainable solutions to improve operating efficiencies, minimize expenditures, reduce carbon footprints, and improve energy and water management delivered through the most experienced sales and service team in the industry.
Experts in design and manufacturing, ClearStream offers a complete line of biological process and sedimentation equipment for all municipal and industrial raw water and wastewater applications including Clarification, Thickening, Cold Lime Softening, Oil / Water Separation, Dissolved Gas Floatation, Jet Aeration, Replacement Drive Units, SBR, etc. ClearStream equipment has been installed, commissioned, and is reliably operating throughout the world in numerous process applications.
Culligan manufactures and distributes water purification and treatment products for household, bottled water, retail and commercial & industrial applications worldwide. Culligan is among the most widely recognized brand names in America & worldwide, having been in business since 1936. Culligan is committed to exceeding customers’ expectations by providing water treatment products and services of the highest standards.
Derek Henderson, P.E.
We are one of the largest electric power holding companies in the United States, providing electricity to 7.7 million retail customers in six states. We have approximately 51,000 megawatts of electric generating capacity in the Carolinas, the Midwest and Florida – and natural gas distribution services serving more than 1.6 million customers in Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and the Carolinas. Our commercial business owns and operates diverse power generation assets in North America, including a portfolio of renewable energy assets. We are transforming our customers’ experience, modernizing our energy grid, generating cleaner energy and expanding our natural gas infrastructure to create a smarter energy future for our customers.
Providing solutions for water purification, separation, conservation and reuse is what we do best, and now we do it even better with the broadest portfolio of water filtration and purification technologies. Our expanded offerings now include exciting technologies such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR), closed circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO), and membrane degasification (MDG) technologies.
Energy Recovery creates technologies that solve complex challenges for industrial fluid-flow markets worldwide. Building on our pressure exchanger technology platform, we design and manufacture solutions that make industrial processes more efficient and sustainable.
EPRI is a nonprofit corporation organized under the laws of the District of Columbia Nonprofit Corporation Act and recognized as a tax-exempt organization under Section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and whose mission is to conduct research and development in energy and related fields for the benefit of the public. EPRI undertakes public benefit research on topics surrounding the production and distribution of electric power and the impact of these activities on the environment.
Evoqua Water Technologies is a leader in water and wastewater treatment products, solutions and services for industrial and municipal customers. We deliver reliable treatment equipment, solutions and services to add value for customers, enable environmental compliance and uninterrupted quantity and quality of water, and reduce energy use.
Major engineering and construction company focused on the petrochemical, refining, mining, metals, and pharmaceutical industries.
Robert J. Ferguson
French Creek Software develops and markets water treatment chemistry modeling tools for water treatment professionals in cooling water, oil field production., membrane systems, water reuse and mining. French Creek is proud to have been honored as a 1994 Ben Franklin Technology Center Innovation Award Winner, the first ever AWT Innovation Award honoree, and the inaugural Process Cooling Innovation Award. Providing industry standard tools for scale and corrosion modeling, and treatment dosage optimization since 1989.
Emma Wolff, P.E.
From its beginnings as a highly specialized geotechnical and structural engineering services firm, GAI Consultants has evolved into a 900-person, employee-owned, multidiscipline engineering and environmental consulting firm, serving our clients worldwide in the energy, transportation, real estate, water, municipal, government, institutional, and industrial markets from offices throughout the Northeast, Midwest, and Southeastern United States. With an award-winning and respected professional reputation in multiple engineering, environmental and technical practice areas, GAI distinguishes itself by our solid reputation of providing excellent customer service along with innovative yet practical solutions.
Geosyntec is a privately held, practitioner-led consulting and engineering firm that works with private and public sector clients to address new ventures and complex problems involving our environment, natural resources, and civil infrastructure. We are internationally known for our technical leadership, broad and deep experience, and exceptional client service. In each of our practices, our aim is to develop best-in-class capabilities and client reputation.
Holly Johnson Churman, P.E.
GHD is one of the world’s leading professional services companies operating in the global markets of water, energy and resources, environment, property and buildings, and transportation. Committed to creating lasting community benefit, our connected global network of 9000 diverse people delivers engineering, architecture, environmental and construction services to public and private sector clients across five continents – Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America – and the Pacific region.
Golder Associates is an employee-owned, global group of companies specializing in ground engineering and environmental services. From offices worldwide, our employees work with clients who want to manage their environmental and engineering activities in a technically sound, economically viable and socially responsible manner.
Gradiant delivers tailored solutions for treating complex industrial wastewaters and desalinating seawater. With a robust product portfolio and proven technical and operational expertise, Gradiant’s desalination, brine concentration, and industrial recycling solutions enable cost-effective and sustainable water treatment, achieving industrial growth in harmony with nature. The company serves customers across the globe from its corporate headquarters in Boston MA, R&D facility in Singapore, and its operating subsidiaries in India, China, Australia, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia.
Consistently ranked among the nation’s Top 10 Water Design firms, our professionals combine the latest technical innovations with practical solutions. Our water consulting services are comprehensive and range from source water development, system master planning and regulatory compliance services to infrastructure design, management and sustainable operation.
Our practice is built on a foundation of dedicated, talented and service-oriented professionals driven to help you identify your best course of action and implement sustainable, cost-effective solutions.
Hydranautics’ mission is to be the recognized world leader in the membrane separation industry through innovative technology. We will offer a spectrum of membrane products and services which achieve the highest quality in the industry. We will employ ethical principles in our business relationships and act as a good corporate citizen in our communities. We will fairly reward our employees according to their contributions, and provide a satisfying work environment.
Kalluri Goup, Inc. (KGI) specializes in the design of the water and wastewater systems for petroleum refineries, chemical plants, industrial plants and municipalities. KGI clients include Chevron USA, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, Shell, Motiva, Basell, Sunoco, Premcor Refining, Frontier Refining, Anheuser Busch, Hobas Pipe, City of Houston, City of Austin and many other large engineering companies such as KBR, Black & Veatch, CH2M Hill, CDM, Worley Parsons, SNC Lavalin GDS and ENGlobal.
KGI recently completed a $35 million wastewater treatment plant in a record time of 4 ½ months from concept through start-up for a fire-damaged refinery in Texas. The major equipment included Oil/Water Separators, DNF, Bio-Treatment, Filtration and Sludge Handling Facilities.
Kiewit is an engineering and construction company offering full turnkey solutions in the energy, water, industrial, mining, building, and transportation sectors.
US Water as one of the fastest growing companies in North America prides itself in solving the most challenging water, energy, and compliance projects in industry. Using an integrated approach, we are able to combine chemical, equipment, engineering, and service, to customize our teams to meet customer needs. Our skilled staff leverage their expertise, experience and knowledge along with the integrated portfolio to find – eliminate – the root cause of problems that impact reliability, efficiency, and profitability. Our commitment, to be more than just a supplier of goods and services, rather become a supplier of solutions, the true business partner. As we like to say in US Water “out with the old, in with the integrated”.
LANXESS is a leading specialty chemicals company.
The company currently has about 15,500 employees in 33 countries and is represented at 60 production sites worldwide. The core business of LANXESS is the development, manufacturing and marketing of chemical intermediates, additives, specialty chemicals and plastics.
LANXESS is listed in the leading sustainability indices Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI World and Europe) and FTSE4Good.
LG Water Solutions, a subsidiary of LG Chem, LTD, is part of the LG Group, a globally recognized leader of exceptionally high quality electronics, chemicals, energy solutions, materials and life sciences products. LG Water Solutions manufactures the full line of NanoH2O™ seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. NanoH2O™ RO membranes are developed based on innovative Thin Film Nanocomposite (TFN) technology. We lead and create the future technology of water treatment. Our ultimate goal is to provide innovative solutions for all humankind facing water shortages.
MANN + HUMMELL Water & Fluid Solutions is a membrane manufacturer that delivers the membrane products to meet all of your water and process needs. We offer the widest range of membrane products, including MF, UF, NF, and RO in flat sheet, spiral-wound, and hollow-fiber configurations as well as MBR technology for treatment of water and wastewater.
Marmon Industrial Water designs and manufacturers water and wastewater treatment equipment solutions, more often known under the brand names Graver Water Systems and Ecodyne. Our engineers are knowledgeable in raw water pretreatment, degasification, hot lime softening, boiler make-up, condensate polishing, wastewater treatment, cooling water treatment, and oil/water separation for petrochemical/chemical, power generation and heavy industrial plants on a global basis.
John Van Gehuchten, P.E.
McKim & Creed, Inc. is a committed team of talented professionals who improve the quality of life for businesses and communities by providing world-class engineering and geomatics solutions.
From gas and electric transmission and distribution lines to industrial water and wastewater treatment, pipelines, and comprehensive water management, we help our clients provide clean water, create safe communities, and plan, design, build and maintain critical and sustainable energy solutions. An employee-owned company in operation since 1978, our technical specialties include industrial design-build; civil, environmental, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and structural engineering; airborne and mobile LiDAR/scanning; unmanned aerial systems; subsurface utility engineering; and hydrographic and conventional surveying services for the energy, transportation, federal, land development, water and building markets.
Alma Rettinger, P.E.
Michael Baker International is a leading provider of engineering and consulting services with Practices that encompass all facets of infrastructure, including design, civil engineering, planning, architecture, environmental, construction and program management. For more than 80 years, the company has been a trusted partner to commercial clients, all branches of the military and federal, state and municipal governments, providing comprehensive services and solutions. Embracing emerging technologies and the latest innovations – like intelligent transportation and design-build project delivery, Michael Baker is an industry leader that delivers expertise and quality. The firm’s more than 3,000 employees across nearly 100 locations are committed to Making a Difference for clients and communities through a culture of innovation, collaboration and technological advancement while Reimagining Michael Baker to become a full-service engineering and consulting firm over the next five years.
MPW is the leading service provider of integrated technology-based Industrial Cleaning, Facility Management, Water Purification and Container Management in North America. MPW partners with customers to enhance operational efficiencies, improve reliability and minimize costs. Qualified, highly trained personnel respond to your needs, delivering services with the highest ethical standards and commitment to safety. Since 1972, MPW has been providing rapid response, making MPW a pioneer in quality and service.
Nalco Water is the leading provider of integrated water treatment and process improvement services, chemicals and equipment programs for industrial and institutional applications. We have a global presence with more than 10,000 employees operating in 130 countries, supported by a comprehensive network of manufacturing facilities, sales offices and research center.
NX Filtration is a provider of direct nanofiltration membrane technology for producing pure and affordable water to improve quality of life. Its direct nanofiltration technology removes micropollutants (including pharmaceuticals, medicines, PFAS and insecticides), color and selective salts, but also bacteria, viruses and nanoplastics, from water in one step while offering strong sustainability benefits.
Mike Kochevar, PMP
OLI provides simulation software for rigorous water chemistry analysis using the OLI Studio and electrolyte flowsheet simulation using OLI Flowsheet: ESP. Using first-principles, OLI models water reclamation and water re-use along with waste water processing in a variety of industrial applications, such as oil and gas production, chemical process, electricity generation, nuclear energy and hydrometallurgy. Software licenses and expert simulation studies are available, with expertise built on 45 years of study of electrolyte thermodynamics.
Purolite is more than a resin company. It’s a solutions company. Purolite has evolved from a small domestic importer of ion exchange resins to the premier world class manufacturer and innovation leader. As time and technology have changed, so has Purolite. Our dedication to research and innovation is paving the way for new opportunities and endless applications. In recognition of this evolution, our brand identity now reflects the company we have become and our vision for the future.
ResinTech is a manufacturer and supplier of ion exchange resins, activated carbon and Aries cartridges. This year ResinTech is showcasing their ULTRA line of pre-regenerated and mixed bed resins, including ResinTech MBD-ULTRA, the highest purity effluent mixed bed resin available. ResinTech MBD-ULTRA is the product of choice for use in semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and ultrapure applications that demand low TOC, high resistivity water.
THE RETEGO system for measuring critical water parameters is our leading edge technology centered on more than 20 years of scientific experience in the treatment and monitoring of water. Our tests are conducted on-site and deliver fast, accurate and precise water monitoring within minutes without the need for specialized training or liquid reagent handling. All sample results are digitally processed, allowing electronic report distribution to anyone, anywhere a snap!
Alan Daza, P.Eng.
Safbon Water Technology (SWT) is a recognized global leader in seawater desalination and recycle/reuse integrated system solutions for the industrial and municipal markets. In its 36 year history SWT has successfully designed , engineered, constructed and commissioned water/wastewater systems in North America, Latin America, MENA, Asia and Australia.
Skid mounted integrated turn-key solutions for pure/ultra pure/waste water and process filtration-separation. Innovative minimum waste/high yield water management and recovery solutions for produced water, boiler feed, condensate polishing, brine concentration/crystallization and Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD). Exclusive licensee of Rohm & Haas Advanced Amberpack Deionization (ADI) technology.
Sargent & Lundy has provided comprehensive consulting, engineering, design, analysis, and project services for electric power generation and power delivery projects worldwide. With a large, highly experienced staff solely dedicated to the energy business, we have the ability and know-how to effectively execute the largest projects as well as highly specialized tasks.
Michael Bluemle, Ph.D.
Solenis is a leading global manufacturer of specialty chemicals for the pulp, paper, oil and gas, chemical processing, mining, biorefining, power and municipal markets. The company’s product portfolio includes a broad array of process, functional and water treatment chemistries as well as state-of-the-art monitoring and control systems. These technologies are used by customers to improve operational efficiencies, enhance product quality, protect plant assets and minimize environmental impact. Headquartered in Wilmington, Delaware, the company operates 41 manufacturing facilities strategically located around the globe and employs a team of 5,200 professionals in 120 countries across five continents. For additional information about Solenis, please visit www.solenis.com.
Southern Company is the premier energy company in the southeast US, serving 9 million customers through subsidiaries. This include regulated electric utilities in three states, each operating multiple generating plants including coal and natural gas fuels. I am responsible for water and wastewater treatment research supporting the generating fleet.
Joshua Pendergrass, P.E.
Stantec is a global engineering and consulting firm as well as the world’s largest international wastewater consultancy according to the most recent engineering Engineering News- Record (ENR) rankings. Our team provides multi-discipline engineering, design, and regulatory compliance services to a wide variety of industries including Power, Mining, Food and Beverage, Oil & Gas, and manufacturing.
SUEZ’s Water Technologies & Solutions business unit has a comprehensive set of chemical, equipment and digital enabled services and products. We help our customers optimize water resources and overcome process challenges. We work with customers across all industries, including food and beverage, power, and oil and gas to help solve their toughest water, wastewater and process challenges. Visit www.suezwatertechnologies.com.
SWAN Analytical USA is a leading manufacturer of high quality on-line analytical instruments for water analysis in applications such as high purity water, steam, condensate, cooling water, potable water and effluent. SWAN instruments measure a number of parameters within these applications such as turbidity, chlorine, sodium, dissolved oxygen, pH, ORP and others. Built with Swiss precision, SWAN’s reliable analyzers are designed with the operator in mind.
Tetra Tech offers full-service, multidisciplinary, consulting and engineering services to government and commercial clients. Our integrated, turnkey approach and nationally recognized experts ensure successful industrial water treatment solutions from concept inception through start-up and commissioning of each treatment facility. With our in-house pilot demonstration capabilities, broad technology experience, and process optimization expertise, our team delivers the most effective options for treating industrial wastewater. Tetra Tech offers treatment expertise in mine water management, oil and gas, steam electric power generation, food and beverage, manufacturing, and iron and steel. With 13,000 employees worldwide, Tetra Tech’s capabilities span the entire project life cycle.
Thermax manufacturers different varieties of ion exchange resins for various applications in water treatment and specialty areas such as pharma, biotech, catalyst, sugar, metal recovery and more. Thermax resins are marketed under trade name Tulsion.
Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments, Inc. is the worldwide leader in the application of field portable, laboratory and on-line continuous process monitors for measuring hydrocarbons in water. We are in the exclusive business of making laboratory, field portable and on-line instruments based in UV fluorescence technology.
Joseph M. Woodley
UCC Environmental (UCC) is a global leader in environmental solutions for solids handling, wastewater treatment and pollution control technologies in power generation and heavy industrial markets. We work closely with our customers to conceptualize, design, and supply systems that meet their individual plant needs.
U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) research sites in Pittsburgh,
PA, Morgantown, WV, and Albany, OR, develop advanced energy technologies and accelerate their
commercialization domestically and abroad. NETL also maintains productive partnerships with
researchers in industry, academia, and other national laboratories and government organizations to
enhance and further develop the Laboratory’s energy research and analysis portfolios. NETL’s work
supports DOE’s mission to advance the national, economic, and energy security of the U.S.
Brittany Hohman, P.E.
A world leader in water and wastewater solutions, Veolia Water Technologies specializes in innovative technology, process design, construction and installation of turnkey systems. We offer integrated solutions to meet your economic and environmental needs.
- Industrial water and wastewater treatment systems
- Water and wastewater recycle/reuse
- Zero Liquid Discharge Systems
- Biological wastewater treatment
- Evaporation and crystallization process systems
Dr. Jefferey Easton, P.E., Ph.D.
For raw water pretreatment, cooling water, water reuse, wastewater and potable water treatment, WesTech is your independent source for a full range of reliable industrial and municipal process treatment equipment designed, engineered and built for long lasting efficiency. For new plants, design build projects, retrofits, or entire plant flowsheets, WesTech offers the process, manufacturing and project experience required.
Since its inception in 1965, Wigen Water Technologies has become a leading manufacturer of custom water treatment systems. We specialize in application-specific, cost-effective and reliable solutions for industrial, municipal and ultrapure clients. WWT purifies water for manufacturers making cutting edge medicines, brand name food and beverage producers feeding the world, power districts providing electricity, hospital and university laboratories requiring re-agent grade water and semi-conductor/nanoscience fab floors at the cutting edge of technology.
Tom Higgins, P.E., Ph.D.
Worley is a leading global provider of professional project and asset services in the energy, chemicals and resources sectors. Advisian is the global advisory services business of the Worley Group dedicated to creating greater value, new possibilities and superior outcomes for its clients. Advisian works alongside its clients to optimize the clients’ assets, asset portfolios, operating businesses and their future endeavors, draws on expertise and real world experience in the resources, energy and infrastructure sectors to deliver services of exceptional quality.
ZwitterCo’s breakthrough membrane technology enables filtration for the most challenging separations. We leverage the remarkable power of zwitterions to create an intensely hydrophilic membrane that resists fouling from organics molecules such as fats, oils, and proteins. The unique properties of our membranes make it practical for industries to reuse water and enhance product recovery from historically unfilterable streams. We offer water treatment and separation solutions that cut chemical demands, maintain steady performance, and last.