Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania


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Wednesday, June 14, 2023

Technical Sessions

Design, Part 3

Time: 8:00-10:30 AM
Room: Annapolis 1/2/3

Session Chair: Jen Laning, P.E., TranSystems

Urban infrastructure improvement requires attention to design requirements for interstate movement, functionality, and accessibility, but should address the community and encourage connection. In some cases, there are challenges around aesthetics and historical context.  This session looks at infrastructure improvements in several large cities, and the challenges that the designers faced when looking for creative and balanced solutions throughout design and construction.

IBC 23-50: Urban Infrastructure Improvement Focused on the Community
Matthew Adams, P.E., Hardesty & Hanover, Tallahassee, FL

The I-395 Segmental Bridges are part of an $840 million dollar Design-Build Project with Archer Western-De Moya Joint Venture for the FDOT to replace and upgrade the existing Interstate 395 in Miami, FL. The segmental bridges provide elevated viaducts between Interstate 95 and the MacArthur Causeway. The Project is provided to improve capacity, revitalize the historic Overtown district, and improve safety and mobility within the community. Hardesty & Hanover provided the final design and construction documents, served as the contractor’s construction engineer, and created the shop drawings for over 2,000 precast and cast-in-place closure segments. The project provides 700,000 square feet of bridge deck area comprised of 89 spans constructed utilizing precast balanced crane and mobile segment lifter erected cantilevers supported by stability props. Some of the unique design features include individual bridge units transversely connected and post-tensioned to conform to complex roadway geometric requirements, phased construction and temporary traffic conditions on partially completed structures, and the use of flexible filler to accommodate future tendon replacement. A major focal point of the design was to increase accessibility within the corridor using increased span lengths, elevated profiles, and a reduced footprint for the structures to alleviate divisions. Design features further incorporate improved lighting, architectural enhancements, and a planned 55-acre linear park beneath the structures. Providing community gathering and activity spaces, the park includes the I-395 Heritage Trail, a contiguous path connecting the surrounding areas while celebrating the vibrant history of the area with commemorative monuments incorporated into the structure.

IBC 23-51: Rebuilding an Urban Viaduct at the Speed of Segmental
Eric Johnson, Corven Engineering, a H&H Company, Tallahassee, FL

The I-59/20 Central Business District Bridges carry heavily traveled Interstates 59 and 20 through downtown Birmingham, Alabama. The original structures (opened in 1973) were designed for 80,000 vehicles per day, but current traffic exceeds 160,000 and the original bridges exhibited signs of deterioration due to age and use. ALDOT’s decision to replace the original bridges allowed for I-59/20 to be closed for only 14-months for both demolition and construction of the new bridges. A precast segmental concrete box-girder bridge was the only option that could be erected within the 14-month closure. This option allowed for offsite precasting of the bridges prior to the Interstate closures and offered other benefits to ALDOT including increased span lengths, improved durability, and aesthetics.

The new bridges feature separate eastbound and westbound structures, each approximately 6,500-ft long, and carry traffic along as many as six travel lanes. Each bridge is comprised of two precast segmental concrete box-girders joined by a longitudinal closure strip. In total, this includes 172 spans, 2,316 superstructure segments and, over 1-million square-feet of elevated bridge.

With an understanding of the short construction duration, and large scale of the project, the design featured elements that could be produced repeatedly and erected quickly. By standardizing many of the common elements the Contractor was able to work efficiently in “assembly-like” fashion.

The Contractor utilized a unique technique for span-by-span construction, erecting each span on falsework towers. This method proved to be successful, with all 2,316 segments (172 spans) erected in only 217 days.

IBC 23-52: Balanced Cantilever Construction in Alberta
Myles Lewis, P.Eng., Stantec, Calgary, AB Canada

The twinning of the Bow River Bridge on Northwest Stoney Trail in Calgary Alberta required large spans exceeding 100 m to be aesthetically and hydraulically compatible with the existing structure. While the existing structure was constructed by incrementally launching the superstructure, early discussions with contractors indicated that cast-in-place segmental balanced cantilever construction was their preferred method to construct the new concrete box girder superstructure. As a result of this feedback and preliminary design investigation, the new bridge was designed for and is currently being constructed with this balanced cantilever construction method, which presented unique design and constructability challenges to overcome.

For example, key design and constructability challenges included choosing the appropriate design criteria, designing for cantilever alignment correction forces, monitoring geometry control, and accommodating safe accessibility.

This paper will showcase the lessons learned from detailed design and construction challenges of the cast-in-place segmental balanced cantilever construction method used on the Bow River Bridge on Northwest Stoney Trail in Calgary Alberta.

IBC 23-53: SR 0095 over Tacony and Bridge Street: Curved Girder viaduct with Integral Post-tensioned Concrete Cross-Girder
Tyler Kerstetter, CDM Smith, Harrisburg, PA; Hassan Alqennah, P.E., CDM Smith, Pittsburgh, PA; Avi Hawver, P.E., CDM Smith and Robin Dominick, P.E., PMP, Philadelphia, PA

The Tacony Viaduct is part of the SR 0095 (I-95) Section BS2 in the City of Philadelphia, PA. The Section BS2 project will improve and widen the I-95 mainline by over 50 feet, to carry an additional lane in each direction and widen the shoulders. The Proposed Tacony Viaduct is a dual structure carrying I-95 Traffic over the NB Maintenance Ramp, Tacony Street, and Bridge Street. The proposed structures are both 5-span continuous curved hybrid steel girders with total lengths of 995 feet (each) supported by integral post-tensioned concrete cross-girders. The southbound span arrangement is 160′-230′-230′-200′-175′ and the northbound span arrangement is 200′-250′-170′-200′-175′. Each structure is 75-foot-wide.

Due to a combination of community requirements, geometrical constraints, and numerous underground and overhead utilities in this dense urban area, standard hammerhead or multi-column bents were not feasible in all locations. Therefore, approximately 100-foot-long cross – girders (straddle bents) were required to span over Tacony Street at two locations. Steel and Concrete post tensioned cross-girders were both considered and examined as alternatives. Integral post-tensioned concrete cross-girders were recommended alternative and ultimately accepted by the client, PennDOT.

The design and detailing of the integral post-tensioned concrete cross-girder presented its own challenges. When the post-tensioned concrete cross-girder becomes integral with the steel girder superstructure, it adds many challenges to the design, detail, and construction of the cross-girder. The final design provides the basis to provide design and detail guidelines that results in more application and use of the integral post-tension concrete cross-girders on future projects.

IBC 23-54: History Matters: Compatible Bridge Design in Historic Districts
Michael Cuddy, P.E., TranSystems, Philadelphia, PA

Today, history has standing, and the consideration of adverse effects and potential mitigation measures are woven throughout the design process when working with historic resources. Too often, engineers, stakeholders and even SHPO officials feel compelled to “decorate” a new bridge being built in an historic district. However, is the need to include aesthetics in bridge design guiding our decisions well? This paper will focus on a review of the federal regulations that permit alterations and additions to historic properties and treatments to be considered which allow a new bridge to successfully blend in with the historic setting and context. Should we consider more new bridge designs that are simple and quiet, that permit history to make the statement and not the new bridge? The paper will also explore how the aesthetic aspect of bridge design is confused with developing compatible designs in historic districts.

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Alternative Delivery

Time: 11:00 AM – 12:30 PM
Room: Annapolis 1/2/3

Session Chair: Jen Laning, P.E., TranSystems

Looking for ways to build bridges smarter, faster and more efficiently?  Join us for a session that discusses projects where the goal was to make it happen.  We’ll talk about a replacement project with a fast-track focus and two projects that used alternative delivery to address the project challenges with innovative technical solutions for new design.

IBC 23-55: Fern Hollow Bridge Emergency Replacement Design-Build
Jason Fuller, P.E., HDR, Pittsburgh, PA; Kevin O’Connor, P.E., HDR, Pittsburgh, PA; Michael Szurley, P.E., Pennsylvania DOT, District 11, Bridgeville, PA; Eric Setzler, P.E., City of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Chad Basinger, P.E., Swank Construction Company, LLC, New Kensington, PA

This paper will discuss the extraordinary collaboration by the project team in response to the Emergency Proclamation that allowed PennDOT and the City of Pittsburgh to partner and utilize all available powers, resources, and personnel necessary to cope with the magnitude and severity of the bridge collapse. A Sole-Source Design/Build Contract allowed Swank Construction Company and HDR to team and partner with PennDOT and the City to open this critical route in under 11 months.

IBC 23-56: Alternative Technical Concept for the Chicago Transit Authority’s Red and Purple Modernization Phase One Project
Emily Hereford, P.E., Stantec, New York, NY; David Depp, P.E., S.E., Stantec, Lexington, KY; Amanda Budnik and Miles Gentsch, Walsh Construction, Chicago, IL

The Red and Purple Modernization (RPM) Phase One Project is the largest capital improvement project in Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) history. The goal is to replace, reconstruct, and modernize 10 miles of elevated track and support structures along Chicago’s busiest transit corridor to increase train speeds and add capacity to CTA’s system with a 100-year service life.

Design and construction features of this project include an alternative technical concept (ATC) to use precast prestressed concrete (PPC) beams which lowers cost, shortens construction schedule, reduces foundations, and minimizes maintenance; CTA transit operations maintained throughout construction; advanced analyses including rail-structure interaction and vehicular-structure interaction; and noise studies/abatement for community integration in design.

The proposed structure improvements for the four North Mainline tracks include new closed-deck structure and rehabilitation of the existing open deck steel structure. The closed-deck superstructure consists of a concrete deck supported on PPC or steel stringers including spans with “hybrid” framing of both PPC beams and steel stringers to accommodate the flared layout for connection between the North Mainline and Ravenswood tracks. Steel rehabilitation includes inspecting and updating a 100+ year old structure to meet new track alignment and revised framing.

Also included in the new structures were grounding, isolation, and corrosion protection via bridge deck expansion joints to isolate steel framed spans from PPC beam spans, and GRFP rebar in hybrid spans.

IBC 23-57: Technical Challenges in Design of the Kingston Third Crossing Signature Span
Edouard Renneville, Eng., SYSTRA IBT, Laval, Quebec Canada; Zac McGain, SYSTRA IBT, Laval, Quebec Canada

The Kingston Third Crossing bridge is a signature structure located in Kingston, Ontario. It is being delivered using the Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) model for the first time on a bridge project in North America. This project model creates a more cohesive partnership while motivating every member to create value by identifying cost-saving ideas through all phases of the validation, detailed design and construction phases. This includes numerous improvements to the reference design that directly increase constructability and reduce project costs while maintaining the project’s visual quality requirements. The 1.2 km long bridge consists of 19 precast girder spans of 43-48 m, and 3 steel below-deck arch spans of 62-95m. The deck is comprised of partial depth precast panels with a cast-in-place concrete deck topping. The precast concrete girders are the longest and tallest ever constructed in the province of Ontario, and provide a strong visual contrast with the weathering steel girder main span. The main span variable depth I-beam girders form an arch shape that presents as delta frames over the central piers. This paper presents the various technical solutions and innovations developed to tackle the construction, geometric and climatic challenges for the design of the signature span of the bridge while meeting the expectations of all IPD partners.

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Rail Bridges

Time: 8:00-10:30 AM
Room: Baltimore 3/4/5

Session Chair: Brandon Chavel, Ph.D., P.E., Michael Baker Consultants

Rapid, cost-effective railroad bridge solutions are crucial for keeping rail freight and commuters moving on time, without disruptions. This energetic session features projects that effectively added capacity, achieved retrofits, and accomplished repairs on accelerated schedules with minimal disruptions. Facilitating design excellence, the session also presents the state-of-the-art in rail-structure interaction analysis and introduces a new, first-of-its-kind guide for achieving constructability in steel railroad bridge design, fabrication, and construction.

IBC 23-58: Design and Construction Challenges of the Main Span and East Approach Replacement/Retrofit of TRRA Merchants Bridge over Mississippi River
Nick Staroski, P.E., S.E., TranSystems, Kansas City, MO

The Merchants Bridge spans the Mississippi River and has been identified as the top priority for improving freight movement through the St. Louis region. The 130-year-old bridge’s current capacity had been limited to the existing double track bridge to allowing only one train to pass at a time causing significant delays in freight movement. The new bridge spans opened to double track capacity in October 2022.

IBC 23-59: AREMA/NSBA Collaboration Steel Railroad Bridge Constructability Design Guide
Brandon Chavel, Ph.D., P.E., Michael Baker International, Cleveland, OH; Jaclyn Whelan, Consolidated Rail Corporation, Mount Laurel, NJ; Ronnie Medlock, High Steel Structures LLC, Lancaster, PA

Steel railroad bridges are designed in accordance with Chapter 15 of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way (AREMA) Manual. Having satisfied the manual and owner requirements there are many other choices that impact the cost, schedule, and constructability of the bridge. The AREMA/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration Guideline provides a supplementary resource for project teams that elaborate on design, fabrication, and construction of steel railroad bridges. The Guide discusses alternatives such as cross section types, corrosion protection measures, and construction techniques to facilitate constructability of bridges. This presentation focuses on recommendations developed by the joint AREMA / NSBA task force on best practices in steel railroad bridge design.

IBC 23-60: Utilizing Innovative Construction Access Design to Minimize Rail Traffic Disruptions
Austin Holub, P.E., PCL Civil Constructors, Inc., Tampa, FL; Neil Greenlee, P.E., G&A Consulting Engineers, PLLC, Marietta, GA; Patrick Weldon, Norfolk Southern Railway, Irondale, AL; Andrew Cestaro, PCL Civil Constructors, Inc., Tampa, FL

The project team for Norfolk Southern bridge crossing the East Pearl River in Louisiana was faced with a challenge to replace a nearly 120-year-old structure entirely within the same footprint of the existing span, while allowing the safe passage of locomotives across the river on a busy route that connects from the Port of New Orleans, LA with much of the country. The work had to be performed without delaying any of the rail traffic that uses the line daily. This paper will shed light on the background of replacing a critical structure on a valuable route that allows the movement of goods throughout the region to and from one of the largest ports in the United States. The NS Pearl River project has come away with several take-aways throughout the execution of the project including the importance of a constructible design, planning and sequencing of construction, managing material supply chain issues throughout a pandemic, and minimizing disruptions to a busy rail line. These objectives have been a core part of the project from development and throughout the completion of the replacement and are integral to the project’s success.

IBC 23-61: State of the Art and Current Practice on Rail-Structure Interaction in North America
Ying Tan, Ph.D., P.E., HDR, Raleigh, NC; John Lobo, HDR, Denver, CO

This paper examines the current methods for performing rail-structure interaction (RSI) analysis and the acceptance criteria prescribed through various transit agencies and national guidelines in the United States and Canada. It also compares these methods and criteria to European code. A numerical analysis compares the results of two different methods for a simplified structure. The results show that the method is deeply entwined with the design philosophy and acceptance criteria and that acceptance criteria must be chosen strictly based on the methods adopted for analysis. A large number of transit agencies in the United States and Canada provide inadequate guidelines on how rail-structure interaction analysis should be performed, or provide a mix of requirements from both European and North American methods, which can result in overly conservative structure design. This paper highlights the need for a clear national guideline that prescribes the methods of analysis and corresponding acceptance criteria and recommends an approach to address the gap in current methods in the United States and Canada.

IBC 23-62: Accelerated Design for Accelerated Construction: Emergency Superstructure Replacement in Tallahassee, Florida
Hank Schneider, Michael Baker International, Tampa, FL; Lisa Hoekenga, P.E., S.E., Michael Baker International, Cleveland, OH; Richard Schoedel, P.E., Michael Baker International, Moon Township, PA

On January 3rd 2022, Bridge 550940 over SR 20 (US 27), Apalachee Parkway in Tallahassee Florida was struck for the third time in three years by vehicles taller than the posted 14’-0” vertical clearance. During prior bridge strikes in 2019 and 2021, the existing 4 girder deck plate girder bridge was repaired and heat-straightened in discrete locations. The damage from the third and most recent strike was much more significant. The strike fractured the web of the girder, caused significant roll and completely dislodged it from the concrete deck. With the sensitivity to railroad and local traffic operations, FDOT understood that an accelerated approach would be required to complete the repairs.

Within the initial 48 hours following the collision, Michael Baker had personnel on site to inspect the bridge, developed temporary shoring plans, performed a load rating, and prepared repair alternatives and cost estimates for solutions ranging from girder replacement to superstructure replacement. FDOT and Michael Baker weighed the merits of repair versus complete superstructure replacement. FDOT ultimately decided to move forward with a superstructure replacement of the spans over the roadway utilizing a low profile through plate girder structure type that would increase the vertical clearance from 14 feet to 16 feet and greatly improving the safety at the bridge for over height vehicles. The entire spans were replaced in a short duration closure to minimize disruption to rail and commuter traffic.

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Inspection and Evaluation, Part 2

Time: 11:00 AM – 12:30 PM
Room: Baltimore 3/4/5

Session Chair: Tyson Hicks, Joseph B. Fay Company

IBC 23-63: Load Rating of A CIP Open Spandrel Arch Bridge with Curved Widening and Offset Traffic Pattern Using Refined Method of Analysis in Virginia
Soroush Fakhri Yazdi, P.E., WSP USA, Herndon, VA ; Charles Kruger, WSP USA, Herndon, VA ; Shiwei Luo, WSP USA, Herndon, VA

Load rating of 11 span spandrel arch bridge with a major widening that shifted the traffic pattern, which could not be analyzed without using 3D refined model. Arches traditionally perform well by reducing the bending moment caused by vertical load and converting it into load into the axial load. This feature is most effective when the arch is loaded evenly.

The open spandrel arch bridge carrying Rte. 58 over Smith river was built in 1927. In 1961 the deck was widened on one half of the arch to create a curved roadway alignment. The design engineers at the time added counterweight to the opposite side of the bridge for balancing the force flow through the supporting arch. The offset portion of the roadway was supported by a cantilever structure extended from the original spandrel arch.

This paper investigates the behavior of the bridge superstructure under standard AASHTO vehicles using 3D FEM, which proves to be a cost effective and precise analysis for load rating such sophisticated structure. Certain assumptions are made in modeling such complex system to simplify the process. This work will appraise these assumptions and different boundary conditions used in the model to determine what assumptions will lead to most realistic results. The results from 3D model showed that the counterweight added did not help balance the distribution of internal forces. In this paper traditional methods of calculation are used to better understand why the design engineers used such counterweight.

IBC 23-64: Development of MDTA Software Tool – the Bridge Asset Management Program (BAMP)
Y. Edward Zhou, AECOM, Germantown, MD; Ilya Batychenko, AECOM, Pittsburgh, PA; Ruel Sabellano, Maryland Transportation Authority, Baltimore, MD; Tekeste Amare, Maryland Transportation Authority, Baltimore, MD

The Bridge Asset Management Program (BAMP) of Maryland Transportation Authority (MDTA) is an advanced Excel tool for intelligent management of MDTA’s six signature bridges and over 320 workhorse bridges. As a result of close collaboration between the bridge owner and the consultant, BAMP facilitates data driven decisions in bridge preservation, rehabilitation, and replacement, as well as lifecycle based budgetary planning. After continuous development and enhancement, BAMP has the following key features: (1) calculating a bridge priority score for each asset considering current condition, risk and performance history; (2) conversion from the Condition States (CS) per the AASHTO Manual for Bridge Element Inspection (MBEI) to the Condition Ratings (CR) per the FHWA National Bridge Inventory (NBI) standards; (3) risk assessment considering bridge functions, capacities, and vulnerabilities based on the available Structural Adequacy Functionality and Exposure (SAFE) ratings; (4) deterioration modeling of bridge components based on historical inspection data using the Weibull analysis method; (5) identification and prioritization of bridge improvement work needs for achieving a user specified condition target (NBI CR ≥ 6 for all elements); (6) development of construction projects, estimated costs, and yearly cash flows for a 25-year budget plan; (7) predictions of future bridge conditions and construction costs for different scenarios of projects and budgets; (8) providing guidance for MDTA’s annual Bridge and Paint Tour programs; (9) generating information needed for the MDOT TAMP report required by FHWA, including asset values, 2/4/10-year performance targets, etc.; and (10) display of key BAMP results in ASIR (MDTA’s bridge management software).

IBC 23-65: Program Management of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge
Jonathan Morey, WSP USA, Edgewood, MD; Ruel Sabellano, MDTA, Dundalk, MD

As part of a continuous effort to preserve the condition and working order of the Chesapeake Bay Bridges while reducing impacts on traveling public, the Maryland Transportation Authority (MDTA) has taken a proactive approach to routinely perform repairs on both of the four-mile-long structures crossing the Chesapeake Bay. The Bay Bridge is a twin bridge crossing that connects Annapolis to Maryland’s eastern shore. The two-lane Eastbound Bridge, opened in 1952, and the three-lane Westbound Bridge, opened in 1973, receive Biennial Hands-On Inspections with Risk Based Inspections in off-cycle years. The results of these intensive inspections are processed to prioritize areas in need of repair and make the most efficient use of available funds. Design-Bid-Build contracts are utilized to perform any number of repair types, while alternative contract methods, including Design-Build and CMAR, are considered for complex rehabilitation to the bridge structures, which utilize Suspension Spans, Cantilever Deck and Through Truss Spans, Built-up Steel Girder and Prestressed Concrete Girder Spans, and a variety of concrete substructures founded on piles in up to 60 feet of water. Repairs consider available Daytime and Nighttime Lane closures and Alternative Access methods to perform repairs that range from Complex Projects to Standardized Priority Repairs, in a concerted effort to maximize efficiency. Consideration of Long-Range Needs with revenue cash flow is proactively considered, as is the implementation of Preventative Maintenance, to keep these structures well into the foreseeable future.

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Time: 8:00-10:30 AM
Room: Cherry Blossom Ballroom

Session Chair: Jay Hyland, TranSystems, Kansas City

IBC 23-66: Long-Term Field Response of Skewed Steel I-Girder Bridge Superstructures
Siang Zhou, Ph.D., University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL; James LaFave, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL; Larry Fahnestock, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL; Ricardo Dorado, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL

Two continuous two-span steel I-girder bridges, one skewed 45˚ with integral abutments and the other skewed 41˚ with seat-type abutments, have been instrumented for long-term static and dynamic (20 Hz) field monitoring since construction. The bridges are closely located and subjected to similar traffic volume and thermal variation, around 100 to 0 ºF (38 to -18 ºC). Girders and cross-frames were instrumented with strain gauges, and girder end rotations and overall bridge movements were monitored; temperature was recorded at each sensor. Progression of superstructure response under thermal and live load over more than two years of data collection has been recorded, including for the in- service full bridges and first-stage half bridges (temporarily for six months). Response of half and full bridges with different types of abutment is compared based on field measurements and numerical simulation – 3D finite element analyses were conducted to provide enhanced understanding of bridge behavior. Girder cross-sections and cross-frames experienced cyclic movement and periodic strain variation under thermal loading; several members exhibited increasing stress over time, at girder bottom flanges and webs and at cross-frames. The unexpected responses initially presented during the first cold-weather period, and some of the stress development continued regardless of thermal cycles. Bridge response under daily traffic loading is also assessed and compared with predictions from computational studies. Evolution of bridge dynamic properties and structural load paths was evaluated throughout the long-term monitoring, including a case study where an initially-loose connection of a cross-frame was tightened after the bridge was in service.

IBC 23-67: A Case Study on Curved Fully Integral Abutment Bridge Thermal Deformation: I-390 over I-490
Amanda Bao, Ph.D., P.E., Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY; Christopher Sichak, Erdman Anthony and Associates, Inc., Rochester, NY; Sam Anthony, Erdman Anthony and Associates, Inc., Rochester, NY; Maddy Bullis, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY

The awarding-winning I-390 southbound bridge over I-490 eastbound is a 525-feet long and 45-feet wide curved fully integral abutment bridge, which is the longest fully integral abutment bridge in New York State by the project completion time in 2021. The bridge superstructure consists of three-continuous span multi-steel I-plate girders on a horizontal curve with a 2000-feet radius, and the span lengths are 185-feet, 155-feet and 185-feet, respectively. The fully integral abutments are supported by HP-driven piles with the pile web orientation parallel to the bridge longitudinal direction. The refined analysis method is required for the bridge based on the curvature exceeding 0.06 and the total bridge length exceeding 400-feet according to the limits specified in AASHTO and NYSDOT bridge design criteria. In this paper, the thermal deformations in the curved bridge are simulated by 3D finite element modeling. The longitudinal and radial displacements at the expansion joints are analyzed and compared with the field data and observations. The soil-pile-structure interaction mechanism is investigated to understand the behavior of the curved fully integral abutment bridge subjected to thermal expansion and shrinkage. According to the results, design recommendations for curved fully integral abutment bridges will be proposed to facilitate further adoption of the cost-effective and low-maintenance integral abutment construction in horizontally curved bridge practices.

IBC 23-68: Experimental Investigation of Noncontact Hooked Bar Lap Splices of Large Reinforcing Bars for Accelerated Bridge Construction
Zachary Coleman,  Johnathan Kerchner, Eric Jacques, Ph.D. P.Eng., and Carin Roberts-Wollmann, Ph.D., P.E., Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

In accelerated bridge construction, it is advantageous to connect precast segments using narrow closure joints which may be facilitated by using lap splices of hooked bars in place of straight bars. In this study, seven beams predominantly containing noncontact hooked bar lap splices of No. 11 bars were tested to investigate the behavior of such splices. The AASHTO LRFD hooked bar development equation was found to be insufficient to safely design hooked bar lap splices.

IBC 23-70: Dynamic Amplification of Light Rail Vehicle Derailment Impact on Bridge
Nicholas De Catella, Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Inc., Waltham, MA; Robert MacNeill, Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Inc., Waltham, MA; John Lobo, HDR, Denver, CO; Glenn Gough, Siemens Mobility Inc., Sacramento, CA

This work presents the results of a study on the amplification of bridge live load in the vertical direction due to derailment of a light rail vehicle, i.e., derailment impact. This work builds on earlier research investigating the effects of impact from derailment of single-level and bi-level commuter train cars. The study was performed using a numerical model consisting of a detailed model of a light transit rail vehicle—accounting for all geometry, stiffness, and damping of the car body and suspension system – and a single span precast prestressed concrete girder bridge, idealized as a spring-supported rigid surface with a range of typical stiffness values. The analysis was performed in LS-DYNA. The model simulated the condition of the vehicle derailing and falling vertically through the height of the rail and supporting plinth to impact the bridge’s deck. Two different drops were considered, representing the rail height only and rail height plus plinth structure. The results showed that the peak amplification of bridge live load due to LRV derailment varied from 320% to 620% over the range of stiffness and vertical train drop. These results are consistent with previous research on single-level and bi-level commuter train cars. The results are also consistent with simplified calculations based on rigid body kinematics. The results are high enough to warrant a more detailed examination of and approach to the derailment forces currently used in North American bridge design codes to determine more accurate loads.

IBC 23-69: John Lewis Memorial Bridge, A Case Study in Alternative Delivery Methods
Eric Birkhauser, Donald MacDonald Bridge Architects LLP, San Francisco, CA

The path towards a successful completed bridge is never straightforward, such is the case with the John Lewis Memorial Bridge (JLMB). After the initial design team developed a concept that did not fit the budget, the client, the Seattle Department of Transportation, acted as the prime consultant to arrange a team to develop a solution that both fit the budget and achieved the community’s vision for the connection. This unconventional hands on approach created a nimble problem-solving team devoid of affiliation beset on leveraging skillsets in an outcome oriented iterative process. One that in turn met these goals and achieved an award-winning project celebrated and beloved by its users.

The JLMB creates new, safe routes for people biking, walking, rolling, and taking transit in Northgate. Spanning Interstate-5 in Seattle’s Northgate neighborhood, this bridge links the newly opened Northgate Light Rail Station and bustling Northgate urban center to the North Seattle College campus, a UW medical satellite campus, and the residential neighborhoods beyond. In connecting to light rail, this growing community has expanded safe, affordable, and accessible options to travel across the region. The community focus, elegant design, and streamlined project delivery manifest the equitable development priorities of SDOT, WSDOT, Sound Transit, and the surrounding community together into this elegant and transformative piece of urban infrastructure.

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Cable Supported Bridges

Time: 11:00 AM – 12:30 PM
Room: Cherry Blossom Ballroom

Session Chair: Pat Kane, P.E., A&A Consultants, Inc.

IBC 23-71: The Design and Construction of the New Storstrøm Bridge
Luca Cargnino, M.Sc. Eng, Ramboll, Copenhagen, Denmark; Peter Curran, Ramboll, Southampton, United Kingdom; Marco Raimondi, SBJV, Vordingborg, Denmark

The New Storstrøm Bridge is a 3.8km long combined rail and road bridge currently under construction in Denmark. It comprises two approach viaducts and a cable-stayed bridge located centrally within the sea strait crossing, with two navigational spans and a single pylon. The tight construction schedule requires a construction method based on onshore large-scale prefabrication and offshore heavy lifting. The key features of structural system, erection methods, analysis and design are presented in this paper.

IBC 23-72: Preliminary Design of the New Ile d’Orleans Bridge
Simon Gren, M.Sc.Eng., Ramboll, Copenhagen, Denmark; Steve Thompson, Ramboll, Southampton, United Kingdom; Philippe Provost, Stantec, Quebec City, Quebec

The existing Île d’Orléans suspension bridge is to be replaced with a new cable-stayed bridge. The Groupement Origine Orleans (GOO) won the architectural competition and was awarded the advanced preliminary design of the new bridge, the only link spanning the Saint Lawrence River to the Île d’Orléans in Quebec, Canada. The result is an elegant yet robust and durable structure befitting of the landscape, with an enhanced user experience.

IBC 23-73: Galecopperbridge – Stay Cable Replacement in Traffic
Dimitri Tuinstra, Arup, New York, NY ; Janwillem Breider, Arup, New York, NY ; Charlotte Murphy, Arup, New York, NY,

The Galecopperbridge is a cable stayed highway bridge with a total length of 326m and 6 traffic lanes. The bridge was built in 1970 and suffers from corrosion problems in the locked coil stay cables. After a major refurbishment where the bridge was strengthened and prepared for widening, the stay cables will be replaced. As the bridge is positioned in the hart of the congested highways network in the Netherlands, the bridge can not be closed for traffic or diverted for a long time. The method in this article describes a stay cable replacement of a bridge in traffic. It will discuss issues that were encountered during design and construction of the replacement and associated strengthening works in the structure.

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W08: Upcoming Professional Opportunities
Time: 8:00-10:30 AM
Room: Baltimore 1

Annette Adams, Virginia DOT, Fredericksburg, VA

Relay upcoming engineering and construction projects scheduled within a 24-36 month timeframe enabling the industry to be better aware of and prepared for opportunities. Provide information on Agencies’ websites detailing the opportunities as well as the individual Agencies’ process to become eligible to bid. Provide networking opportunities between consultants, contractors, and Agencies. Presentations are geared toward adjacent Agencies and/or attendee’s location.

W09: Combined Workshop
Time: 8:00 AM – 12:00 PM
Room: Baltimore 2

NCHRP Guidelines for Risk-Based Inspection and Strength Evaluation of Suspension Bridge Main Cable Systems
Blaise Blabac, P.E., Modjeski and Masters, Poughkeepsie, NY

Inform attendees of updates to NCHRP Report 534, the guideline for the inspection and strength evaluation of suspension bridge main cables (parallel wire cables only). Explain the changes between the proposed AASHTO Guidelines and the current NCHRP Guidelines, with a focus on 1) the strength evaluation method using the modified Random Field Method and 2) using Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) methods for determining inspection intervals.

Wind Tunnel Testing of Long Span Bridges – Live demonstration in RWDI’s Largest Bridge Tunnel
Dawn Porcellato, RWDI, Guelph, Ontario Canada

The objective of this workshop is to show bridge designers and owners what tests should be completed on long span bridges to verify the bridge design, construction method and bridge operation for safety and code compliance. Participants will learn about the types of bridge models used in wind tunnel testing and how the scaled models are designed and constructed so that their response to wind forces replicates the response of the real bridge. The testing methodology will be explained along with information that is obtained from wind tunnel tests. The live video feed from the wind tunnel will assist participants in their understanding of the importance and value of wind tunnel testing for bridges. This workshop will also illustrate how the information obtained from the bridge model tests can be used by designers to modify their designs to perform better in operation with less construction cost. In situations where potential issues are uncovered during testing, possible solutions will be shown and discussed. Participants will witness the same type of testing procedure RWDI clients see when they visit the wind tunnel.

Suspension Bridge Cable Strength Evaluation and Dehumidification
Stuart Rankin, WSP USA, New York, NY

This portion of the combined workshop will focus on dehumidification as a means to preserve cable conditions by controlling the internal environment within the cable wrapping. As there is no applicable code for cable dehumidification, WSP will present actual information from systems in operation within the US. The approach by others to cable dehumidification, as well as the outcomes (when available) will be presented. Lessons learned through the design and construction stages will be shared with owners to share justification for the practical approaches to cable dehumidification systems that will be included in the final recommendations, including incorporation with anchorage dehumidification. As part of the dehumidification presentation, DS Brown will present information related to their product used to overwrap many of the suspension bridge cables around the world (Cableguard™). The goal of our workshop is to provide additional resources to suspension bridge owners.

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