Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania

Location

337 Fourth Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15222

Phone: (412) 261-0710 Email: eswp@eswp.com Get Directions

Wednesday, June 5, 2024

Technical Sessions

Digital Delivery

Time: 8:00-10:00 AM

IBC 24-59: Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission: Pilot 3D Bridge Model Project
Dan Rogers, P.E., RETTEW Associates, Inc., Lancaster, PA; Ryan Rago, P.E., Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, Middletown, PA

In 2015 the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission began the initial research towards the goal of implementing digital delivery by 2023. In January 2021, the Commission awarded RETTEW Associates, Inc. the engineering contract for the replacement of Bridge No. NB-550 at Milepost A-83.88, carrying Hatchery Road (SR 1001) over the Northeast Extension in Penn Forest Township, Carbon County, Pennsylvania. The Commission selected the project as the pilot bridge replacement project for digital delivery and 3D modeling. Over the next two and a half years, RETTEW coordinated with the Commission, PennDOT, and outside consultants to develop construction documents that included a 3D bridge model as the legal document.

The project was advertised for construction in August 2023 and completion of construction is due by November 2024. The final deliverables for the proposed two-span prestressed composite spread box beam bridge included 2D plan sets for Roadway, Erosion & Sediment Pollution Control, Maintenance and Protection of Traffic, Signing and Pavement Marking, and Cross Sections. The 3D bridge model was paired with an abbreviated Structure plan set. Challenges included selecting and optimizing software, rebar modeling, developing the abbreviated structure plan set, quality control and assurance, deciding on the extent of annotated sheets in the 3D model, and preparing construction inspection and management staff. At the time of the presentation, the project will be in construction and lessons learned to date during construction will be included.

IBC 24-60: The Digital Puzzle: Working Together to Implement BIM Standards
Joseph Brenner, Michael Baker International, Harrisburg, PA; Eric Weber, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg, PA; Alex Mabrich, Bentley Systems, Sunrise, FL

PennDOT is committed to bridging the digital divide with its Digital Delivery Directive 2025, or 3D2025, to modernize PennDOT’s project delivery processes and contract document media to incorporate digital data. For bridge projects, this includes developing software environments and digital workflows that can efficiently and effectively produce products that comply with the standards PennDOT has had in place for decades. This takes collaboration and communication from multiple stakeholders including owners, consultants, and software companies all working together to fit the necessary pieces in place.
Using a collaborative team of PennDOT representatives, consultants and a software vendor’s team for PennDOT’s OpenBridge Modeler development as an example, this presentation will outline the necessary puzzle pieces and the steps required to put them together that a large should consider for a successful BIM implementation.

IBC 24-61: Transitioning the Nation’s largest bridge inventory to Digital Delivery
Daniel Jensen, Michael Baker International, Midvale, Utah

TxDOT is currently in the planning stages of transitioning the nations largest bridge structure inventory from traditional project delivery to a digital delivery system. This will involve using 3D design processes which will ultimately allow for a model as the contractual document allowing for better presentation of data and a deeper understanding from all parties. This presentation will give you an understanding of how TxDOT expects to achieve this process and what types of groundwork has been put in place to ensure a successful transition. A perspective of the current challenges as well as the expectations of the Bridge Division throughout the next few years will help your organization to learn from the success of others.

IBC 24-62: Parameter-Driven Creation of 2D Traditional Style Drawings, 3D Models, and Analytical Models: A Quantum Leap in
Douglas Dunrud, WSP, Sacramento, CA; Douglas Dunrud, WSP, Sacramento, CA

As the bridge industry grapples with implementing 3D models, many senior experts are struggling to use the 3D model to validate the underlying data and prefer traditional 2D drawings for detailed information while embracing the models as visualization tools. The Interstate Bridge Replacement (IBR) Project utilizes the OpenBrIM software platform to generate 2D drawings that meet the client’s CAD standards that are indistinguishable from those produced by traditional methods, along with high definition 3D models and sofisticated analytical models, all based solely on bridge parameters. This makes it possible for delivery teams to perform the same quality review process even though the underlying data is all in the 3D model.
This is essentially equivalent to creating automated bridge detailers that know how to take information from the model to create 2D bridge plans and quantities. These automated bridge detailers know the CAD standards of different clients and create drawings that match their preferences. The drawings are not mere “viewports” into the model but genuine 2D algorithms that replicate what has been done traditionally by CAD detailers. The 2D drawings can be “red-lined” by senior personnel and the entire 3D data set can be modified at once.

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Construction Engineering 4

Time: 8:00-10:00 AM

IBC 24-63: The Replacement of the Park Avenue Viaduct: Micropile Foundations and Innovative Construction Techniques
Arsanious Guirguis, P.E., Hardesty & Hanover, LLC, New York, NY

The proposed project, situated in Manhattan’s Harlem neighborhood, addresses the replacement of a vital transportation link – the Park Avenue Viaduct – between East 115th and East 123rd Streets, serving as an essential route for approximately 750 daily Metro-North Railroad (MNR) trains from Harlem, Hudson, and New Haven lines to Grand Central Terminal servicing hundreds of thousands of commuters per day. The existing Viaduct, constructed in 1893 and last rehabilitated in 1993, requires replacement, presenting unique challenges due to the site’s history. The project involves the replacement of this viaduct segment with a rapid construction approach while maintaining service on the existing structure. Innovative rock-socketed drilled micropile foundations using innovative construction techniques were implemented that were installed in low overhead conditions while minimizing disturbances to surrounding structures. The project’s quality assurance program included a comprehensive testing program comprised of verification testing on sacrificial micropiles, proof tests at substructure locations, and rock socket video inspections. To ensure safety and structural integrity during construction, a geotechnical instrumentation and construction monitoring plan has been implemented, including monitoring for vibrations, accelerations, vertical settlement, and lateral movement of adjacent structures and utilities. In summary, the proposed project combines urban construction with innovative construction techniques, aiming to provide a sustainable and reliable transportation infrastructure that meets the demands of MNR commuters and travelers.

IBC 24-64: Value Engineered Solution for the Replacement of a Highly Skewed Heavily Traveled Urban Bridge
Zhuo Wen Wu, EIC Group LLC, Fairfield, NJ; Haiwen He, EIC Group LLC, Fairfield, NJ; Michael Marks, EIC Group LLC, Fairfield, NJ

The Astoria Boulevard Bridge, constructed circa 1940’s, was a single span deck girder-floorbeam highly skewed structure with a span of approximately 86’-0”. The bridge is in Queens, NY and provides access to LaGuardia airport along with local businesses for both vehicles and pedestrians.

Routine inspections revealed the bridge had severe corrosion of the steel and deck deterioration. Construction to replace the bridge commenced in December 2020 to remedy the structural deficiencies and to meet geometric requirements for this heavily traveled urban roadway. The existing bridge superstructure was replaced by a new multi-girder-slab structure.

J. D’Annunzio & Sons, Inc. retained EIC Group to perform value engineering services to re-design the bridge to minimize impacts to the public and reduce construction duration and cost. The original Contract proposed to utilize a 30’-6” wide, temporary ACROW bridge adjacent to the existing bridge to carry vehicular traffic allowing the bridge to be reconstructed in a single stage. However, this scenario resulted in an extended construction duration and significant impact to vehicular traffic.

The value engineered solution eliminated the vehicular temporary ACROW bridge and used a temporary pedestrian bridge adjacent to the existing bridge to maintain pedestrian access. A stageline strongback girder was utilized so the bridge could be completed in two stages and maintain traffic on the existing structure. Pre-cast deck panels were utilized to accelerate the construction process. The result was a one-month construction time reduction and approximately $1,000,000 in cost savings to the NYSDOT. The project was completed in June 2022.

IBC 24-65: Don’t Judge a Bridge by Its Span Length: West Montgomery Avenue Bridge Replacement Project
Adam Bagriacik, Modjeski and Masters, Mechanicsburg, PA; Chris Smith, Modjeski and Masters, Mechanicsburg, PA; Ryan Sen, City of Philadelphia Department of Streets, Philadelphia, PA

The existing five-span bridge was built in the 1910’s and carries vehicular and pedestrian traffic over five railroad tracks of the Northeast Corridor (four operated by Amtrak and one operated by Conrail). The proposed bridge is a 126-foot single span steel multi-girder bridge. The design presented numerous challenges, however, two were key: the bridge skew is 40 degrees and there are numerous existing obstacles within the project.

To capture all force effects caused by heavy skews, the bridge was designed using a combination of three-dimensional modeling and one-dimensional line girder analyses.

The bridge is surrounded by 100-year-old masonry walls, residential homes, and businesses, and the legal right-of-way is a few feet outside the bridge footprint. There were several underground utilities that ran perpendicular and parallel to the bridge, including a 4’-6” diameter brick sewer pipe that crossed perpendicular directly beneath a proposed abutment. The final major challenge is the rail traffic frequency through the bridge site.

Modjeski and Masters (M&M) collaborated with the City of Philadelphia Department of Streets to develop innovative design solutions such as a discontinuous pile cap to avoid the existing brick sewer, ultra-lightweight foamed glass aggregate backfill, shallow, wide-flanged plate girders, and prefabricated modular wingwalls (TWalls). The concrete end diaphragms were also designed to be used for future jacking due to the desire to eliminate the need for towers adjacent to the busy tracks. The goal of this paper is to explore the design challenges and document M&M’s solutions to overcome them.

IBC 24-66: Constructability Reviews – an invaluable part of the process
Gary M. Dinmore, P.E., Dinmore Engineering, Upper Black Eddy, PA

Most young engineers can design a beam to support the loads given, some can even develop the loads, however, most young engineers will not consider how that same beam gets made, delivered, and erected. These are all factors that should be considered early-on in the process and designed accordingly. Access is one of the most important factors when it comes to building a bridge, especially in heavily populated areas like New York & Philadelphia, but there are many other factors to consider of which some will be presented along with alternate means & methods (i.e. gantry cranes, spincasting, stay-in-place- fascia-forms, hydraulically driven (self-propelled) heavy-duty shoring equipment, etc.) that could be implemented instead of conventional construction. In general, constructability reviews are intended to identify potential issues that could arise in the field before time & monies are lost on a project; value engineering is similar, it looks more at how time & monies can be saved on a project. This presentation will explore both constructability and value engineering and introduce some innovations that can open minds to proven alternatives available today that can improve projects.

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Design & Analysis-Arch

Time: 8:00-10:00 AM

IBC 24-67: Innovative Hanger Replacement for the Sherman Minton Bridge
Blaise Blabac, P.E., Modjeski and Masters, Poughkeepsie, NY; Sean Casey, P.E., Modjeski and Masters, Poughkeepsie, NY

The Sherman Minton Bridge Renewal is a $137M public-private partnership (P3) project involving the comprehensive rehabilitation of this critical bridge carrying I-64 over the Ohio River between Louisville, KY and New Albany, IN. The main span of the bridge consists of two 800 ft. span double-deck tied arches carrying 3 lanes of traffic on each level (westbound on the upper level; eastbound on the lower). One component of the rehabilitation project is the replacement of all 136 hanger cables, which are original to the bridge and are now over 60 years old (opened in 1962). Modjeski and Masters, as a member of the Kokosing Construction Co. team, developed an innovative method to replace the existing hangers without the need for costly temporary hangers. The new hangers utilize Type 6 sockets with threaded rods to allow for load transfer and adjustment of hanger length to match the original geometry. In order to meet the required the strength and durability requirements of the project specifications, the new hangers (consisting of 2-9/16” dia. ASTM A586 structural strand) utilize a unique hybrid wire configuration with Grade 2, Class A inner wires and Grade 1, Class C outer wires to provide a minimum Factor of Safety of 3.0. This paper will illustrate the key components of the hanger replacement system and the methods employed during construction to transfer the 120-ton reaction from each of the existing hangers to the new hangers, all while maintaining full traffic and matching the original geometry of the structure.

IBC 24-68: Engineering for Bridge Demolition – Recommended Best Practices
Sam Kevern, Foothills Bridge Co, Boulder, CO; Josh Crain, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO; Lisa Briggs, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO; Chris Tollefson, Foothills Bridge Co, Boulder, CO

Engineering for Bridge Demolition – Recommended Best Practices is a new manual of practice from ASCE, with publication set for Spring of 2024. While there are guidelines and recommendations for bridge construction, there is little documented guidance for bridge demolition.
Most engineers and owners acknowledge that additional considerations are required to analyze a structure as it is being constructed. During partial stages of erection, there are unique and potentially governing load cases that need to be considered beyond the final design of the permanent structure. Bridge demolition has similar challenges and complexities as a structure is being removed, while simultaneously having a finite service life. The need for properly engineered bridge demolition plans becomes apparent when you combine the technical complexity of bridge demolition with increasing project constraints due to population, economic impact, and environmental concerns.
This presentation provides an overview of the recommended best practices for bridge demolition engineering, including the purpose and need for the document, the history of its development, qualifications of the contributors, and an overview of the content.

IBC 24-69: Design of the Hawk Falls Arch Bridge
Thomas Murphy, Modjeski and Masters, Mechanicsburg, PA; Wally Wimer, The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, Middletown, PA; Daniel McCaffrey, Modjeski and Masters, Mechanicsburg, PA; Andrew Adams, Modjeski and Masters, Mechanicsburg, PA; Nohemy Galindez, Modjeski and Masters, Mechanicsburg, PA

The new Hawk Falls bridge will carry the Pennsylvania Turnpike’s Northeast Extension over a scenic, steep-sided gorge in the Hickory Run State Park. Due to increases in traffic over the years and the deteriorating condition of the existing crossing, a replacement structure consisting of a 465’ span steel deck arch and 720’ total length was developed to keep the traffic moving while harmonizing with the dramatic geography of the park setting. The bridge is designed to carry 4 traffic lanes plus full outside shoulders and reduced width inside shoulders. In addition, the design of the structural components incorporates a future widened condition with two additional travel lanes added to the bridge. Three arch ribs are used to carry the multi-girder cross section, which is supported on columns with a longitudinal spacing of 60’. The use of a multi-girder cross section supported on the arch rib allows for a significant amount of system redundancy such that the floor beams can be classified as System Redundant Members. The design of the arches incorporates HPS 70W steel, as well as strategic use of the highly corrosion resistant A709 grade 50CR steel in the bearing regions. All other steel is weathering grade, with the interior of the box section arches painted for enhanced durability and to allow for easy inspection. The arches are supported on stainless steel pins at the skewbacks, and feature a low rise-to-span ratio. This presentation will cover the design, fabrication, and construction of the structure to date.

IBC 24-70: New Tricks Used to Rehabilitate an Old Arch Bridge
Steve Olson, Olson & Nesvold Engineers, PSC, Edina, MN; Mark Maves, Short Elliot Hendrickson Inc., St. Paul, MN; Steve Eads, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO

Several innovations or “tricks” were used as part of the rehabilitation project. Tower cranes were supported off of the main river piers to facilitate construction activity. To retain and utilize spandrel columns with existing reinforcement that didn’t meet today’s code requirements an external post-tensioning system called the YOWman system was developed. This significantly improved the load rating for the bridge and reduced construction costs by limiting the number of spandrel columns to be replaced and the complexity of the detail between the arch rib and the existing or new spandrel columns. A passive cathodic protection was deployed with a thermally sprayed metal anode on the arch ribs. This was supplemented with concrete repairs that utilized galvanized rebar anchored with a cement based grout. To expedite the measurement of concrete surface repairs a system using a handheld laser scanner was developed. This readily allowed the contractor to be paid extra for “deeper” repair locations. With complicated curved geometry, hand measurements are tedious and time consuming. The handheld laser scanner minimized time in the field, minimized impact to the contractors operations and produced a digital record of where the repairs were performed.

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Rail

Time: 8:00-10:00 AM

IBC 24-71: Streamlining Infrastructure: Box Jacking for Trenchless Underpasses in North America
Alex Belenguer, McNary Bergeron & Associates, Broomfield, CO

Box jacking is an advanced bridge construction technique enabling the trenchless installation of underpasses. This method combines hydraulic pushing of the structure with simultaneous excavation at the tunnel’s leading edge.

There are several advantages associated with this approach. First, it can be engineered to maintain live traffic during the underpass installation, minimizing disruptions to existing infrastructure. Second, the precast construction of the underpass separates the timing of the push, making it easier to schedule for minimal user impacts. Furthermore, it can be employed under both road and railroad traffic by designing temporary structures tailored to each project’s needs.

Despite its widespread use in Europe, this technique is just beginning to gain traction in construction projects in North America. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of various design and construction alternatives, along with examples of successful applications in projects such as the Long Island Rail Road Expansion, the Brightline High-Speed passenger train system, and the Hurontario Light Rail Train.

IBC 24-72: 120 Year Old Truss Replacement with 187′ TPG Span
Austin Holub, P.E., PCL Civil Constructors, Inc., Tampa, FL; Nabil Hamadani P.E., HDR, Cincinnati, OH; Erich Heymann, P.E., McNary Bergeron & Johannesen, LLC, Tampa, FL

The Norfolk Southern, 120-year-old 209’ truss, main span over Leaf River in Hattiesburg, Mississippi required replacement due to concerns with the condition of the structure. A 187’ through girder span with 13’ tall girders supported on multiple 6’ diameter large diameter piles was selected as the replacement for the main span. For replacing the truss which was constructed in 1904, the project team faced several challenges to complete the in-line replacement while allowing the safe passage of trains across the river. The construction and span change-out had to be performed with minimal disruption to the 12 trains that travel over the bridge every 24 hours, and was required to maintain a safe passage for pedestrians using both Chain Park and Petal River Park on either side of the Leaf River. This paper will go over the design and environmental permitting for the replacement structure and examine the measures required in the face of the challenges to replace a major structure on a critical route over which goods are transported throughout the region to and from one of the largest ports in the United States. Emphasis will be on the strategies employed for successful execution of the project, including the importance of a constructable lateral slide design, planning and sequencing of construction activities (including providing a safe access to the congested site), and minimizing disruptions to rail traffic and park users. These strategies were a core part of the project from development through completion and were integral to the project’s success.

IBC 24-73: Valley of the Dons – Utilizing Long Span Segmental Bridges over the Environmentally Sensitive Terrain of the Don River
Nickolas Hatinger, HDR, Olympia, WA, WA ; Jason Stauffer, HDR, Tallahassee, FL

As part of the Ontario Line Technical Advisor contract with Metrolinx in Toronto, Canada, HDR is providing final design services for the Don Valley Crossings including two long-span segmental bridges used to cross the Don River Valley. Each of these two bridges contain main spans exceeding 136 meters with columns as tall as 32 meters and are part of the Ontario Line’s North Civil transit program. The structures support 2 tracks of commuter rail and will provide residents of Thorncliffe Park neighborhood direct access to downtown Toronto. Strategic planning and extensive coordination with stakeholders is necessary to overcome the project’s many challenges. Design and construction challenges include high voltage lines, gas pipelines, public spaces, freeways, residential communities, and environmentally sensitive terrain. The presentation will cover a brief overview of the project and highlight challenges overcome for the design of the Don Valley Crossings.

IBC 24-74: Replacement of Norfolk Southern Bridge N-680.20 over North Court Street in Circleville, Ohio
Edward Baznik, P.E., Michael Baker International, , ; Kimberly Guice, P.E., Michael Baker International; Nicholas Bayer, P.E.

Norfolk Southern’s Bridge at Milepost N‐680.20 carried two mainline tracks over North Court Street in Circleville, OH. It was comprised of a 164’‐2½’’ out‐to‐out three‐span open deck through girder bridge skewed 70 degrees to the substructure and founded on a concrete gravity abutment, steel columns and a concrete end pier integral to a 100+ year old reinforced concrete tunnel. Michael Baker International (MBI) performed a type study to investigate solutions for the structure, including replacements that would reduce the high skew, as well as options that would maintain that skew, all while replacing the structure with a ballasted deck. The preferred alternative included a new 90’ long, highly skewed, ballasted deck double track steel through plate girder span and installing new precast box beam spans over the existing tunnel. The change from an open deck to a ballasted deck would require raising the track by 3-feet to maintain the existing vertical clearance over North Court Street.
Pre-outage work included the construction of a new full height concrete abutment in front of the existing abutment required the installation of four rows of micropiles under the existing, in-service, structure. The existing tunnel was modeled, analyzed and strengthened with the addition of micropiles and pile cap on the pier side. During a 40-hour track outage, the existing steel superstructure was removed and the new plate girder span was installed using a Liebherr LR-1750 crane. The track bed raise drove the outage schedule and required significant planning and coordination between the crews.

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Rehabilitation Design 2

Time: 10:30 AM-12:00 PM

IBC 24-75: Deck Removal for the I-75 Bridge over the Rouge River
John Boschert, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO; Clay Malloure, CA Hull Co., Inc., Walled Lake, MI

The I-75 over the Rouge River Bridge carries eight lanes in Detroit, Michigan. I-75 in this area is a critical highway connecting to Canada and is very heavily used by the traveling public.
Based on length and surface area, the I-75 over the Rouge River Bridge is the largest bridge in Michigan and was originally built in the 1960s. The bridge consists of 106 steel plate girder spans and is 1.63 miles long, including five spans over railroads and three spans situated high over the Rouge River.
A major deck replacement project for the entire bridge was undertaken starting in 2017 which was planned and performed over a two-year period. The deck removal and replacement operations were performed in phases with the southbound bridge replaced first followed by the northbound bridge while maintaining three lanes of traffic during the entire project. Deck removal operations required large-scale operational planning to remove existing deck from the composite steel plate girder system in safe and efficient manner.
This paper and presentation will focus on the planning and demolition engineering that were performed by the project team to perform this landmark project, including the following:
• Coordination and planning for the extensive and complex construction operations required
• Discussion of engineering methods utilized to address field conditions and equipment loading
• Evaluation of the existing bridge for deck removal operations, specifically considering the composite steel plate girder system and strength reductions during deck removal
• Discussion of special conditions to address temporary stability and

IBC 24-76: Rigid-Frame Bridge Seismic Retrofits on TransCanada Highway
Kai Marder, TYLin, Vancouver, BC Canada; Kai Marder, TYLin, Vancouver, BC Canada; Dusan Radojevic, TY Lin International, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Terrence Davies, TYLin, Vancouver, BC, Canada

The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (BC MoTI) identified three underpass bridges along the TransCanada Highway in West Vancouver, BC for potential seismic retrofit as part of its Bridge Seismic Retrofit Program. Constructed circa 1973, the bridges are steel rigid-frame configurations with inclined pier legs founded on soils with average shear velocities ranging from 180 to 1500 m/s. The BC MoTI retained T.Y. Lin International Inc. (TYLin) to assess the vulnerability of the existing structures using Canada’s new 6th Generation seismic hazard model demands, which were found to be significantly higher than the previous 5th Generation demands. TYLin developed detailed finite element models to analyze the seismic demands and designed retrofit solutions to address the vulnerabilities of each bridge. Key criteria for the retrofit designs included minimizing pier foundation modifications and managing traffic throughout construction. The required retrofits for two of the bridges were isolated to their abutment and pier bearing connections, whereas the third bridge required extensive retrofit improvements, including deadman anchors, link slabs, bearing restrainers, and a fluid viscous damper system. The retrofits provide a life-safety service level and a probable-replacement damage level in accordance with the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CSA S6:19) requirements for the 975-year return period seismic event. This seismic performance level permits safe highway traffic flow below the bridges while retaining limited live load capacity for traffic crossing the bridges. This paper provides a discussion of the seismic hazards and vulnerabilities affecting each of the bridges and descriptions of the retrofits.

IBC 24-77: A Case Study on Retrofitting of a Box Girder Bridge with CFRP and External Tendons
Chun-Chung Chen, National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan; Chi-Rung Jiang, National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan

This paper describes a retrofit case study of a field bridge that uses Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and external tendons. The project has three stages: on-site structural investigation, laboratory experiments, and field long-term monitoring. The first stage involves field investigation and experimental tests to understand the existing condition of the bridge and prepare for the design and planning of retrofitting work. The second stage involves laboratory specimen tests, including CFRP patch anchorage performance testing and scaled-down specimen experiments, to ensure the expected structural behavior of the engineering design and to reasonably understand and explore the performance of CFRP retrofitting specimens, providing feedback for the evaluation and valuable references for the authorities and the design company. The third stage is the construction of a field long-term bridge monitoring system which is used to observe the stability of the retrofitted structure, confirm the structural behavior of the bridge, and collect long-term monitoring data to explore and propose maintenance management reference suggestions. The long-term monitoring system is about to start running, and the results of the first two stages have been fed back to the design company to verify the design assumptions and confirm that the retrofit result was effectively achieved.

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Construction Engineering-Demolition

Time: 10:30 AM-12:00 PM

IBC 24-78: Demolition Challenges of the Harry W Nice/Thomas “Mac” Middleton Bridge
Nikkolas Edgmond, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO

The Harry W Nice/Thomas “Mac” Middleton Bridge was a uniquely designed and constructed structure from its birth in 1940 and posed some very unique challenges during its removal nearly 100 years later. With superstructure types ranging from simple span precast bridge units, to deep plate girder spans, to continuous deck trusses, to the main channel consisting of a 3-span continuous arched support truss; each structure type required specialized demolition analysis and processes to safely remove the aging structure. Moreover, the structure was supported primarily on 2D steel towers that framed into the superstructure through a rhomboidal detail. The unique design of the rhomboidal regions developed interesting load distribution within the system when subjected to irregular loading coinciding with demolition operations. This presentation will highlight the various demolition methods considered for these different structure types and the decision process that led to the selected removal methods. The presentation will conclude with review of the demolition activities on the bridge, including large demolition equipment, precision structural element removal, and explosive demolition, including a lesson in expecting the unexpected when bridges decide to defy the laws of physics.

IBC 24-79: Engineering and Execution of the I-74 Mississippi River Bridge Removal
Lisa Briggs, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO; Joe Knapp, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO

When we talk about a bridge project, the focus is typically on the new bridge being constructed. But often, the safe and efficient removal of the existing bridge contributes equally to the project’s success. In the case of the existing I-74 Bridge spanning the Mississippi River between Moline, IL and Bettendorf, IA, Genesis Structures and Helm Civil collaborated to engineer and execute a complex staged removal sequence. The demolition involved a deviation from the suggested plan of blasting the suspension spans in their entirety to a piece-by-piece removal of the existing superstructure. By limiting the amount of required recovery time from the river, this method proved to be more cost effective and reduced the required navigational closure time of the waterway. Additional challenges associated with the demolition included the proximity to the new bridge, crane access limitations near the existing lateral dam, and the presence of endangered mussels which prohibited the use of temporary structures on a portion of the job site and necessitated the use of barges with shoring towers to support the approach trusses during removal.

IBC 24-80: Sequenced Removal of the Non-Redundant I-30 Bridge
Steve Eads, Genesis Structures, Kansas City, MO; James Castor, Kiewit Massman Construction, Little Rock, AR; Logan McInvale, Kiewit Massman Construction, Little Rock, AR; Dave Byers, Genesis Structures.com, Kansas City, MO

The I-30 Bridge over the Arkansas River in Little Rock, Arkansas, was originally built in the late 1950s. The main river crossing consisted of eight spans with span lengths ranging from 160’ to 210’. The existing bridge consisted of a reinforced concrete deck supported by steel stringers and floor beams that were in-turn supported by two nonredundant plate girders. The replacement bridge has a similar alignment as the existing bridge. The first phase replacement bridge was constructed along the east side before the demolition of the existing bridge began. A joint venture between Kiewit & Massman performed the new bridge construction and required demolition operations. The bridge deck was removed with excavators operating on the structure and debris collected on barges operating below. The main super structure steel was removed with land-based cranes and a water-based, barge-mounted, ringer crane. Specialized sequential removal analysis was performed to safely dismantle the continuous nonredundant structure while maintaining stability of the remaining pieces. Genesis Structures performed the required demolition engineering. The multi-phase project required various demolition activities and engineered components that included pier brackets, post-installed supporting concrete corbels attached to the face of the existing substructure, strongbacks for temporary support of the discontinuous girders, custom lifting lugs, longitudinal bearing lock-up devices, false-work towers, and girder-flange lateral torsional buckling restraints.

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Design & Analysis-Steel

Time: 10:30 AM-12:00 PM

IBC 24-81: Efficient Design of Modern Steel Highway Bridges
Francesco Russo, Russo Structural Services LLC, Havertown, PA; Michael Grubb, M A Grubb & Associates; Donald White, Georgia Institute of Technology; Melanie Hay, University of Delaware

The design of steel bridges includes consideration of traditional dead and live loads, but also newer requirements related to wind loads, stability during construction, and various practical considerations related to girder sizes, weights, practical span layouts, and other factors, all of which are interrelated.
This paper discusses observations and conclusions from the design of over 200 modern steel plate girder bridges designed to meet AASHTO requirements and at the same time meet various fabrication and erection preferences for safe and economical construction. Engineers will be able to understand the relationship between various competing AASHTO design provisions that are important in the design of the completed bridge as well as have a role in construction and erection engineering.
1 – Overview of new AISC standard plans
2 – Influence of various AASHTO provisions on bridge design i.e. design of non-composite bridge for wind, deck casting, new stability design provisions, etc.
3 – Observations on stability and strength implications of newer AASHTO provisions
4 – Conclusions and observations from several hundred recently completed standard designs

IBC 24-82: Record Setting I-64 Kanawha River Bridge
Jason Fuller, HDR, Pittsburgh, PA; Anthony Ream, HDR, Pittsburgh, PA

HDR teamed with Brayman/Trumbull, a Joint Venture (BTJV), to deliver this $224 million WVDOH design-build project, which widened four miles of Interstate I-64 near Charleston, WV from four to six lanes. The project consisted of a new tri-level interchange with two curved steel ramp structures, replacement of three sets of dual mainline structures, an overhead crossing, and dual bridges crossing the Kanawha River west of Charleston, WV. The 562’-6” main span of the dual river bridges is the longest steel multi-girder bridge span in the United States.

The team investigated rehabilitation and replacement options for the existing river truss structure, choosing to replace the existing bridge with two new dual structures. BTJV constructed a westbound (WB) steel I-girder bridge on new drilled shaft river piers and deep pile foundation abutments adjacent to the existing structure. After shifting traffic to the WB bridge, BTJV demolished the existing truss, making room for a second dual eastbound (EB) steel I-girder bridge.

The new river bridges utilized unique details and analyses. These included adaptive reuse of the exiting truss piers for the EB bridge; strand-jacking the central 400’-portion of the main span girders from barges below; haunched girders with optional longitudinal field splices and minimal longitudinal stiffeners to allow fabrication and shipping flexibility; and complex analyses including nonlinear buckling, live load time history, thermal gradient, and other load considerations required for a record setting span.

IBC 24-83: Standard Designs and Plans for Modern Steel Highway Bridges
Francesco Russo, Russo Structural Services LLC, Havertown, PA; Michael Grubb, M A Grubb & Associates; Melanie Hay, University of Delaware

New AISC standard plans have been developed to simplify the design of hundreds of routine steel bridges. These standards cover bridges with 1, 2, 3, and 4-spans with individual spans ranging from 80 – 300 ft. Beam spacings of 8, 10, 12, and 14 ft are included. Link-slab options for simple spans built continuous are included. The designs are in accordance with the new AASHTO LRFD 10th edition requirements for stability, include modern wind load considerations, and have been developed with nationwide fabricator input for fabrication and erection efficiency and safety. The paper and presentation will review the development of these standards, including many details like bracing and splices that are also provided, and provide a walk-through for engineers on how to use these standards to quickly design many short, medium, and long-span steel bridges. The engineering workflow to satisfy the many AASHTO requirements will be highlighted as integral to a safe and economical design.

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Segmental

Time: 10:30 AM-12:00 PM

IBC 24-84: Waxed Tendons for Fort Walton Beach Bridge Replacement Project
Christopher Vanek, WSP USA, Seattle, WA; Victor Ryzhikov, WSP USA, Tampa, FL; Matthew Durshimer, WSP USA, Tampa, FL

Serving as the major East-West corridor across the panhandle of Florida, the US98 corridor is a major arterial route serving the coastal tourist communities. A popular destination of the Destin/Fort Walton area is connected by the Brooks Bridge crossing over the Santa Rosa Sound along the Intracoastal Waterway. The replacement project requires replacement of the existing structure with two parallel structures each carrying three travel lanes and a shared used pedestrian path. The new high level 13 span structure stretching approximately 2110 feet long is constructed with a skewed 275’ post-tensioned concrete spliced girder main span. Apart of Florida Department of Transportation initiative to combat corrosion contamination the design introduces one of the nation’s first unbonded flexible filler internal tendons spliced girder system. This paper will outline the modeling, design approach and details of the bonded/unbonded spliced girder system, mockup and construction requirements and a unique detailing required for the 30-degree skewed interior piers.

IBC 24-85: Evaluation, Design and Implemantation of a Holistic Repair Strategy to Extend the Service Life of the Post-Tensioned I-526 Wando River Bridge
David Whitmore, Vector Corrosion Technologies, Winnipeg, MB Canada; R. Dominick Amico, HDR, Charlotte, NC; Ivan Lasa, Florida DOT (retired), Gainesville, FL

Post-tension (PT) tendons have been used for many years in bridge construction. Generally, these structures have performed well except where PT tendons have had issues due to grouting deficiencies. These deficiencies can result in voids, chloride contamination, and soft or segregated grout which can lead to corrosion and failure of the PT tendon.
This presentation will describe evaluation techniques which can be used to identify the presence of voids and corrosion, engineering and construction considerations, as well as methods which have been developed to mitigate corrosion of PT tendons.
The I-526, post-tensioned segmental box girder bridge over the Wando River in Charleston, SC was experiencing PT tendon corrosion and failures resulting from these conditions. SC DOT and engineering consultant HDR were proactive in evaluating the structure and developed a repair and maintenance strategy to mitigate corrosion and extend the service life of the structure.
The Wando River Bridge case study will be presented to demonstrate how proper evaluation, engineering analysis and implementation of a holistic repair strategy can be used to preserve and maintain critical transportation assets.

IBC 24-86: Brim Based Geometry Control in Cable Stayed Bridge Construction
Atte Mikkonen, SOFiN Consulting, Espoo, Uusimaa, Finland

Kruunuvuori Bridge is a new landmark for the capital of Finland, Helsinki. It’s a cable stayed bridge with single tower reaching up to 135 meters and it has main spans 2 x 260 meters. Total length of the Bridge is 1160 meters. It is designed only for the public transportation (tram) and pedestrians. Superstructure is a steel concrete composite, and is on slight curve also in plan, which is very unusual for a cable stayed bridge.
Full information modelling is implemented in all public infrastructure construction works in Helsinki. Unique in this project is that also the geometry control of the cable stayed bridge is commenced full model based (BriM never implemented in this extent for major bridges construction in the world). Curved superstructure is assembled in segments, lifted on temporary supports, deck cast before stressing the stays. In addition to a vertical camber, due to the superstructure curvature, a camber in plan is also needed. For all the construction steps, the geometry of the structure was provided in open format (IFC) models. Format is such that It can be used directly for the surveys in total stations at the site. Models are based on staged construction analysis (FEM) and the calculation is updated to as built along the work, when needed. As the geometry models are automatically produced from the analysis, the workflow was found very fast, flexible and visual. In this paper, the workflow of the full model-based erection control is explained.

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Workshops

W07: Emerging Technologies in Structural Health Monitoring
Scott Snelling, P.E., Roebling Labs; Mike Ciocys, RDI Technologies

Time: 8:00 – 10:00 AM

The objective of the workshop is to introduce emerging structural health monitoring technologies, particularly those using smartphone accelerometers and contactless computer-vision approaches.

The USDOT Strategic Plan for 2022 to 2026 aims to: “Advance the use of advanced sensor systems and automated inspection technologies to support early identification of structural deficiencies and infrastructure deterioration.”

Smartphone-based accelerometers and contactless computer-vision approaches to bridge monitoring have the opportunity to significantly lower the cost of bridge monitoring.

Attendees will have the opportunity to use a free web-application on their own smartphones to collect vibration data on a model bridge.

Attendees will have the opportunity to use a “motion amplification” video camera to visualize and measure the vibrations on a model bridge.

Attendees will have the opportunity to visualize and analyze their collected data under the guidance of the panelists.

W08: UAS Applications for Bridge Inspections (NCHRP 12-122)
Alicia McConnell, P.E., Rawlins Infra Consult, Edwardsville, IL; John Zuleger, P.E.; Paul McGuinness, P.E.

Time: 8:00 – 9:00 AM

This workshop presents the results of a study to develop guidelines for applications of UAS for collecting element-level data during bridge inspections. The overarching objective of this research was to develop American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) guidelines to be used by Departments of Transportation (DOT) and other bridge owners for implementing unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)-specified inspections to assess bridges using element-level condition states.

W09: BIM and Digital Twins: From 2D Deliverables to Intelligent Models
Alex Mabrich, PE, MSc, MBA, PMP, CPM, Bentley Systems, Sunrise, FL

Time: 9:00 AM – 12:00 PM

Organizations are facing the challenge of providing intelligent models as final deliverables while at the same time having to still produce 2D plans as part of their contracts. Then, how to combine or merge old practices with new workflows in a new level of collaboration among different disciplines? How to work with new concepts as common data environment, IFC, intelligent objects, BIM, Digital Twins, etc? The purpose of this workshop is to present an overview on how to successfully transition for the old practice of crafting 2D plans to delivering an intelligent 3D model that can be used for construction and later to operations and maintenance.

W10: International Workshop Project Showcase

Time: 10:00 AM – 12:00 PM

The International Workshop Project Showcase will provide an opportunity for bridge owners, designers, and builders of bridges outside the United States to present a PowerPoint slide show of their accomplishments.  These presentations will not require a paper submission and will tend to be less technical than presentations in the technical sessions.

(If you are from outside the USA, are planning to attend the IBC, and are interested in presenting a project, please contact Kristina Emmerson, k.emmerson@eswp.com)