Wednesday, November 15
Technical Sessions – 8:00 a.m.-12:00 noon
Cooling Water Treatment: Innovation in Legionella Testing, Recycle Water Treatment and Film Forming Amines
IWC Rep: Ken Dunn, Solenis, Shrewsbury, MA
Session Chair: Charles Kuhfeldt, Athlon Solutions, Houston, TX
Discussion Leader: Christopher Baron, ChemTreat, Neward, DE
This session will discuss the ongoing issues of use of recycled water as well as an innovation in Legionella testing and new information about film forming amines in a closed loop treatment. The complexity of high ammonia content recycled water as cooling tower makeup and its subsequent discharge can lead to high operating cost, toxicity compliance issues, or TSS/BOD compliance issues. These problems are the subject of one paper with the history of treatment applications in two power plants. Multiple treatment approaches and technical and cost results will be discussed. The high mineral content of some reclaimed Grey waters creates difficulty with high exchanger scaling potential with the use of ortho phosphate. Our second presentation will discuss an alternative chemistry solution resulting in lowering the scaling potential while maintaining corrosion control. The third discussion will focus on recent Legionnaire’s Disease outbreaks in 2015 and 2016, such as in New York City and Flint and the new ASHRAE Standard 188-2015. A more effective microbiological monitoring procedure and a “field friendly” bio-film monitoring procedure will be discussed. New applications of film forming amines in closed cooling systems will be discussed in the final paper with data from multiple advanced surface analytical techniques (XPS, TOF-SIMS, TEM). The discussion includes review of the water and treatment chemical factors affecting the corrosion inhibition film formation.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W07; W09; W14; W20
IWC 17-61: Inhibiting Corrosion in Cooling System Utilizing Reuse Makeup Water
Mary Jane Felipe, Khac Nguyen, Zhenning Gu, and Sidney Dunn, Baker Hughes, a GE company, Sugar Land, TX
In areas where there is water scarcity, the use of reclaimed water has become a viable option as a source of cooling tower makeup water. Oftentimes, reclaimed water contains high level of minerals increasing scaling tendency. This study details a corrosion treatment program solution for cooling towers utilizing reclaimed water wherein the calcium phosphate scaling potential is greatly reduced. Remarkably, this treatment program has shown excellent corrosion inhibition even at high temperatures.
Discusser: Matt Wangerin, Solenis, Wilmington, DE
IWC 17-62: Experience with Film Forming Amines in Closed Loop Cooling
Claudia Pierce and James Gleason, GE Power, Water & Process Technology, Trevose, PA
T he overall objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the corrosion inhibition mechanism observed in closed loop cooling systems treated with FFA (Polyamines). Using several advanced surface analytical techniques, it was demonstrated that the corrosion inhibition films formed at the metal water interface were dependent on the water composition and the chemical treatment. FFA based corrosion inhibitors offer a very high level of corrosion protection for carbon steel and yellow metals.
Discusser: Jeff O’Brien, Chemtreat, Waupaca, WI
IWC 17-63: A Rock and a Hard Place – Managing use of Ammonia-laden Recycled Water
Daniel Sampson, HDR, Walnut Creek, CA
Two power plants in the Western United States receive recycled water from the same supplier with ammonia concentration of 30-80 mg/l as N. Both plants use recycled water primarily as cooling tower makeup. This paper examines historical microbial control at the two cooling towers, several oxidizing and non-oxidizing microbial control chemistries, and concludes with a technical and cost evaluation of the options. The narrative provides vendor-neutral information to assist others receiving water high in ammonia.
Discusser: Jon Howarth
IWC 17-64: A Field Friendly Bio-Film Monitoring Procedure for Cooling Tower Water – Offering the Potential to Minimize the Risk of Legionnaires Disease
Paul Puckorius, Puckorius & Associates, Inc. Water & Waste Water Consultants, Westminster, CO; John Dresty, Griswold Water Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA
Cooling tower water systems have been the cause of Legionnaires disease outbreaks which has prompted a study of the microbiological programs and the procedures commonly used to monitor both total bacteria as well as Legionella Bacteria. The results of this study suggests that the current practice of using water samples in testing for Legionella Bacteria should be changed to Bio-Film monitoring to reduce the risk for Legionnaires Disease.The Bio-Film monitoring procedure and several case histories are provided to illustrate the differences between water and Bio-Film monitoring results.
Discusser: Christine McInnis
Developments in Drinking Water – Expanding Resources and Improving Quality
IWC Rep: Tisha Scroggin, Burns & McDonnell, Chicago, IL
Session Chair: Jonathan Shimko, Tetra Tech, Pittsburgh, PA
Discussion Leader: Abbey Antolovich, Xylem, Denver, CO
As we continue to grow our footprint on the planet and our demand for clean, abundant and affordable drinking water, the need for innovative solutions intensifies. This session presents a variety of topics ranging from treatment technologies, reduction of trace contaminants and advances in our ability to source water previously considered undrinkable. Through modeling, bench testing and application of full scale systems, the papers presented in this session demonstrate compliance with emerging regulations and our ability to expand our utilization of water resources.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W09; W17
IWC 17-65: Removal of Uranium from Contaminated Wells and Surface Waters on the Navajo Reservation
Edward Rosenberg and Ranalda Tsosie, University of Montana, Missoula, MT
Uranium contamination is a huge problem on the Navajo reservation.We have developed a silica-polyamine composite material containing an amino-phosphonic acid functional group1 that has been shown to selectively reduce ppm levels of uranyl to low ppb levels in the presence 12 gL-1sulfate. Solutions exactly profiling the contaminated water sources have been successfully tested and the novel material has compared with commercially available polystyrene resins. The uranyl can be efficiently recovered with carbonate solutions.
Discusser: Beryn Adams, Lanxess Sybron, Birmingham, NJ
IWC 17-66: Modeling Hazardous Metals in Municipal Water
Robert Ferguson, French Creek Software, Phoenixville, PA
Mandated and recommended Pb and Cu control techniques in municipal water distribution systems emphasize “anticorrosive” treatment, and ignore the solubility, and dissolution of existing deposits. They fail to account for the impact of chemistry or water source changes on existing corrosion product solubility and transport through the system. This paper outlines a multifaceted approach to lead and copper contamination of municipal water systems that incorporates hazardous metal solubility, in addition to corrosion prediction and control.
Discusser: Kelly McCurry
IWC 17-67: Optimized Treatment Process Reduces Disinfection Byproducts for Potable Drinking Water Application
Phillip Locke, McKim & Creed, Clearwater, FL; Jim Hogan and Fred Greiner, City of Palm Coast, Palm Coast, FL
Palm Coast implemented a ZLD treatment process that treats NF concentrate, which is then blended into the WTP’s finished water. TTHM levels have exceeded the regulatory limit of 80 ug/L. Several methods to reduce TTHMs were evaluated including: chemical processes, chlorine contact time management, pH adjustment, PAC, in¬tank and skid mounted TTHM removal systems and using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. This paper covers the results full-scale pilot testing to reduce levels for regulatory compliance.
Discusser: Mel Butcher, Arcadis, Tampa, FL
IWC 17-68: Introduction to Desalination and Review of Lessons Learned
Julia Horn, EI, Caroline Wilson, EI, and Brian Clarke, P.E., Kiewit, Lenexa, KS
Desalination is gaining increased attention worldwide as a method to expand available drinking water resources. This paper will serve as an introduction to desalination by providing an overview of the process, including key process variables, intake and discharge options, electricity usage, chemical usage, energy saving methods, expansion considerations, and recarbonation options. Secondly, this paper will address lessons learned from the completion of the Carlsbad 50 MGD facility, the largest desalination plant in the United States.
Discusser: Eric Dole, P.E., Hazen and Sawyer Consulting, Highlands Ranch, CO
Produced Water – Treating Recycled Water from Shale Oil and Gas Facilities
IWC Rep: Mike Ryder, Chester Engineers, Moon Township, PA
Session Chair: Don Downey, HDR, Inc., Paris, ON, Canada
Discussion Leader: Chris Graham, Purolite Corporation, Calgary, AB, Canada
IWC 17-69: Aeration and Mixing Technology Evaluation for Storage Impoundments used in Upstream Oil and Gas Operations
Matthew DeMarco, Arcadis, Wilmington, DE; Ketankumar Maroo, Daniel Olson, and Nibhana Suvarna, Arcadis, Houston, TX; Pranay Mane, Arcadis, Atlanta, GA
Reuse of water from hydraulic fracturing is an emerging trend among E&P companies because it can improve development logistics (reduced cost & environmental impact). The water is stored and reused after limited treatment; it still has high concentration of total dissolved solids and residual organic compounds. The reuse water must be maintained in conditions suitable for fracking. Here we will present the evaluation and selection process for technology to maintain the required water quality.
IWC 17-70: Oil and Gas Wastewater Conversion Case Study- Beneficial Reuse using Membrane Bioreactor, Softening, and Reverse Osmosis Technologies at Centralized Wastewater Treatment Facility in Pennsylvania
Dan Ertel, Jerel Bogdan, Eureka Resources, LLC, Williamsport, PA; Brian Arntsen, GE Water & Process Technologies, Oakville, ON, Canada; Anthony Urciuoli, GE Water & Process Technologies, Harwich, MA
Eureka Resources, LLC has been operating patent-pending, centralized oil and gas wastewater treatment facilities in Pennsylvania for over 8 years with a model for sustainable treatment of non conventional oil and gas wastewater. The 0.168 MGD distillate requires treatment prior to surface water discharge, including full-scale Membrane Bioreactor Ion Exchange Softening, and Reverse Osmosis systems This paper will present critical information regarding the design, installation, and of long-term operation of the distillate treatment component of Eureka facility.
Discusser: Darrell Hartwick, Buckman North America, North Lancaster, ON, Canada
Scale and Scale Prediction in Geothermal Waters
IWC Rep: Mike Ryder, Chester Engineers, Moon Township, PA
Session Chair: Cathie Loudenslager, Calpine,
Discussion Leader: Jo Ordonez, Solenis,
The papers presented in this session include two topics related to scale in geothermal water. A paper will be presented on the utilization of software specifically designed predicting mineral scale considering the challenges of the geothermal well’s changing minerals and temperatures. A second paper will describe the ability to control the formation of silica scales within system utilizing silica precipitation.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W09; W19
IWC 17-71: Silica Precipitation Chemistry, What works and how much does it cost?
Denney Eames and Jacob Aylesworth, EIT, Watertectonics, Everett, WA; Lee O’Dell, CH2M Hill, Inc., Portland, OR
Silica precipitation chemistries will be presented with treatment pros and cons. Data for three (3) high silica water treatability case studies, where precipitation technologies were evaluated as the primary treatment method, will be shared along with estimated capital and operating costs. Water sources presented include:
- Drinking water
- Pretreatment of produced water reuse to steam production
- Pretreatment of mine wastewater to reverse osmosis
Discusser: Claudia Pierce, GE Power, Water & Process Technologies, Trevose, PA
IWC 17-72: A Tool to Predict Optimum Dose for Mitigating Scale in Geothermal Systems
Jasbir Gill, Nalco an Ecolab Company, Naperville, IL; David Rodman, (AUS) Ecolab Pty Limited TA Nalco Australia, Darra, Austria
This paper discusses software, designed to predict mineral scaling tendencies in geothermal power plants and to determine the best scale inhibitors and doses required for optimum plant protection. The scaling tendencies over typical temperature ranges are calculated for well profiling. Verification of the predicted dose from the software and the successful applications in the field are also discussed.
Discusser: Robert Ferguson, French Creek Software, Phoenixville, PA
FGD and Ash Pond Wastewater Treatment from Concept to Reality
IWC Rep: Bill Willersdorf, Veolia Water Technologies, Randolph, NJ
Session Chair: Kristen Jenkins, Southern Research, Cartersville, GA
Discussion Leader: Joe Potts, Duke Energy, Cincinnati, OH
Increasing regulations are driving coal fired power plants to move away from the use of ash ponds, requiring new technologies to treat wastewater. Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) scrubber blowdown and ash basin wastewater treatment will be reviewed. The papers in this session present approaches to FGD blowdown treatment from concept through full scale implementation and operation, and will touch on the perspectives of owners, engineers, and equipment suppliers.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W04/A; W09; W15
IWC 17-73: FGD Technology Evaluation for Two Similar Power Plants Leads to Different Solutions
Krystal Perez, P.E., CH2M, Bellevue, WA; Robert Muehlenkamp, We Energies, Milwaukee, WI ; Thomas Higgins, CH2M, Reston, VA ; Chad Roby, CH2M, Columbus, OH; Christina Joiner, CH2M, Atlanta, GA
We Energies operates the Pleasant Prairie Power Plant, Elm Road Generating Station, and Oak Creek Power Plant. The plants are seemingly very similar, but the resulting wastewater characteristics are very different in terms of flow and water quality. This paper will present how development of the basis of design for the three FGD wastewaters was used in evaluating technologies, associated costs and risks. Despite being similar plants, the optimum technology for each plant was different.
Discusser: Gary Blythe, AECOM, Austin, TX
IWC 17-74: Case Studies & Analysis of Reverse Osmosis to Treat Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater
Derek Stevens, Ph.D., Dow Water and Process Solutions, Edina, MN; Cheng Yang, Ph.D., Dow Water and Process Solutions, Shanghai, China; Brandon Kern, Dow Water and Process Solutions, Midland, MI
Membranes can pre-concentrate wastewater to reduce ZLD costs, but, for FGD waste, high COD, hardness and dissolved solutes give rise to operational challenges in fouling, scaling, and osmotic pressure. Here we present design options using proper pretreatment and selection of ion exchange, reverse osmosis and nanofiltration to concentrate FGD WW ahead of ZLD, including an economic analysis and information on several case studies of power plants in China which are employing such technologies.
Discusser: John Wentz, Power Engineers, Cincinnati, OH
IWC 17-75: The Impacts of Chloride Concentration Variations on Biological Selenium Removal in FGD Blowdown
Joel Citulski, Carsten Owerdieck, Wajahat Syed and Jeff Cumin, GE Power, Water & Process Solutions, Oakville, ON, Canada
Biological treatment technologies are an important component to achieving selenium and nitrate removal in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) purge streams. Variable and/or elevated chloride concentrations are a common feature of FGD wastewater, and their impacts on the efficacy and stability of biological treatment remain poorly defined. This paper demonstrates the resilience of a fixed-film anoxic/anaerobic treatment process to chloride variations through both performance data and DNA profiling of the microbial community within the bioreactors
IWC 17-76: Design, Installation and Start-up of First Commercial Hybrid ZVI Wastewater Treatment System
Charles McCloskey, Evoqua Water Technologies, Schaumburg, IL; Derek Henderson, Duke Energy, Raleigh, NC; Michael Riffe, Evoqua Water Technologies, Warrendale, PA; Steven Lindvall, Evoqua Water Technologies, Rockford, IL
T he use of hybrid ZVI for the removal of constituents from power plant wastewaters has been well documented. This paper describes the basis of design, engineering, installation and start-up of the first full scale commercial application of the technology in the power industry. A controlled performance demonstration was accomplished in March pending full scale start-up and operation. Pretreatment requirements, system sizing criteria and operational results will be presented along with guidance for future applications.
Discusser: Tyler Cromey, Southern Company