Tuesday, November 8
Technical Sessions – 1:15-5:00 p.m.
Sustainability – A Driver for Innovation
IWC Rep: Tom Lawry, McKim and Creed, Sewickley, PA
Session Chair: Michele Funk, Bechtel Infrastructure and Power Corp., Frederick, MD
Discussion Leader: Jason Monnell, Tetra Tech, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA
Water is scarce. Mother earth is beautiful. It is incumbent upon us to protect our most valuable resource – water. Our desire to reach the moon brought about some of the greatest engineering designs. For the water treatment industry alike, our quest for sustainability continues to drive innovative designs. This session’s goal is to spotlight innovative designs in the name of sustainability. Specifically, the pioneering designs in this session include: creative recycle and reuse at a manufacturing facility, non-phosphate corrosion inhibitor performance on cooling water treatment, revolutionized UV technology for RO biofouling control, and an advanced biofilm monitoring and control technology for microbiological control allowing detection of sessile bacteria in real-time.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W09
IWC 17-45: Treatment of High Strength Industrial Wastewater using Ceramic Membranes and Reverse Osmosis – A Case Study
Gerard Van Gils, Kemco Systems Co. LLC, Clearwater, FL
This paper describes an innovative process using Ceramic Microfiltration Membranes plus Reverse Osmosis to treat a high strength waste stream coming from a dairy plant. The high strength waste contains high levels of milk fats, protein and cleaning chemicals. The installed treatment process allowed the dairy operators to reuse the treated water, thereby reducing the volumes of liquid waste that was being hauled off-site for disposal.
Discusser: Neil Kem, P.E., Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC
IWC 17-46: Hydro-Optic UV – A Sustainable Solution for Non-Chemical Biofouling Control
Dennis Bitter, Atlantium Technologies, Sarasota, FL; Ytzhak Rozenberg, Atlantium Technologies, Ltd., Har Tuv Industrial Park, Israel
A coal-fired electric generation facility (nameplate capacity 604 megawatts) eliminated the use of biocides and placed the Hydro-Optic (HOD) UV technology into service to reduce the operational impact of biofouling, improve RO feed water and reduce costs associated with disinfection treatment. This presentation will detail site background and operational results from full-scale commercial use of the HOD UV technology to provide non-chemical biofouling control as a sustainable and environmentally friendly disinfection alternative in power applications.
Discusser: HG Sanjay, Bechtel Corporation, Reston, VA
IWC 17-47: A Holistic Approach to Microbiological Control in Cooling Systems and the Environment
Raymond Post, P.E., ChemTreat, Richmond, VA; Prasad Kalakodimi, Ph.D. and Doug McIlwaine, Ph.D., ChemTreat, Ashland, VA
Phosphorus is usually the limiting nutrient for algal photosynthesis and is also an essential nutrient for bacterial growth. Phosphorous compounds are widely used in cooling systems to control both corrosion and deposition. This increases the requirements for chlorine and antimicrobials, resulting in undesirable chlorinated byproducts and increasing costs. This paper presents a holistic approach to biological control, involving the use of totally non-phosphorus and non-zinc chemistries for controlling corrosion and deposition in cooling systems.
Discusser: Caroline Sui, Water and Process Technology, Trevose, PA
IWC 17-48: Real-time Biofilm Monitoring in Industrial Water Applications
Shih-Hsiang Chien, Ph.D. and Michael Bluemle, Ph.D., Solenis, Wilmington, DE; Jo Ordonez, Solenis, Kyle, TX; Patric Bierganns, Solenis, Krefeld, Germany
An advanced biofilm monitoring and control technology has been developed to achieve successful microbiological control while optimizing chemical treatment. A real-time monitoring device that employs both an ultrasonic thickness and a thermal resistance sensor to detect biofilm growth is the core of the technology. The device was first evaluated on a pilot cooling tower using synthetic cooling water with cultured heterotrophic bacteria. Field validation was then conducted in industrial applications with a variety of water sources.
Discusser: Frank Johns, Tetra Tech, Denver, CO
IWC Rep: Mike Gottlieb, ResinTech, Inc., West Berlin, NJ
Session Chair: Donna DeFlavis, Dow Water and Process Solutions, Collegeville, PA
Discussion Leader: Mike Bluemle, Solenis LLC, Wilmington, DE
Consider Attending: W01/A; W02/A; W05; W09; W10
IWC 17-49: Chlorides from Anion Resin in the Nuclear Power Industry 2015-2017
Gregory Bachman, Marty Wilkes, and Brian Blake-Collins, Evoqua Water Technologies, Rockford, IL; Michael Raymond, Entergy, Jackson, MS
Chloride levels in Nuclear Power Reactor Coolant systems at >1 ppb have initiated penalties beginning in 2008. The importance of removing chlorides is to avoid corrosion of system components through inter-granular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). In 2015, organic chloride compounds were slowly released and broken down in steam cycle temperature, pressure and radiation conditions. Subsequent analytical techniques were developed and continue to be deployed for evaluating refined resins prior to shipping. This ensures that chlorides will remain below action levels upon installation, loading, start-up and expected service run length. Evoqua determined the root cause as trace organic chlorides entrained in anion exchange resin. This paper will review the occurrences, actions taken, and resulting chemistry after the corrections were made and implemented.
Discusser: Hans Juergen Wedemeyer, Lanxess, Cologne, NRW
IWC 17-50: Modern Ion Exchange Resin Analysis
William Bornak and Harold Stansfield, RTI LLC, Warminster, PA
Two new tests are introduced to supplement conventional resin metrics. The first test measures the throughput of anion resin, both fouled and cleaned, under field regeneration conditions. The second test measures an unusual acid tailing effect seen in cation resins fouled with internal hardness. Both tests are helpful in addressing the question: clean or replace.
Discusser: Matthew Roth, Dow Water & Process Solutions, Collegeville, PA
IWC 17-51: Removal of PFOA PFOS and other PFAS Substances using Ion Exchange
Francis Boodoo, Jonathan Campos, and Sean Kennedy, Purolite Corporation, Bala Cynwyd, PA
Recent ten-fold reduction in US EPA health advisory levels for PFOA and PFOS to <70 ppt underscores the public’s increasing concern for safe drinking water. Local cities have gone further asking for removal to non-detect levels. In this paper, newly developed selective ion exchange resins are demonstrated in commercial and pilot systems to effectively reduce both short and long chain poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to non-detect levels ranging from 1 to 5 ppt. Cost comparisons to GAC and new system guidelines are given.
Discusser: Thomas Mallmann, Evoqua Water Technologies LLC, Rockford, IL
IWC 17-52: Historical Review of Predicting Ion Exchange Resin Operating Capacity & Leakage Performance
Francis DeSilva and Michael Gottlieb, ResinTech, West Berlin, NJ
Since the early 1950’s, equipment companies have relied on their resin suppliers to provide performance estimates of ion exchange resins used in demineralizers and softeners. This paper provides a history of how performance estimates for ion exchange resins were originally calculated, how the performance data was created, and the evolution to the technology of today. A feature of the paper is an analysis of the time investment required by the design engineer then versus now.
Discusser: Joe Guida, P.E., Fluor, Sugar Land, TX
Mine Water Treatment Challenges and Solutions
IWC Rep: Paul Pigeon, Golder Associates Inc., Lakewood, CO
Session Chair: Jeff Easton, Westech Engineering, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT
Discussion Leader: Tom Sandy, P.E., Brown and Caldwell, Charlotte, NC
Today’s mines have challenging issues with water treatment due to the wide variety of dissolved metals and other constituents found in their water. In this session we will explore two of the more difficult mine water constituents, Selenium and Sulfate. Both of these parameters are not only difficult to remove, but face mounting environmental regulation. This session presents two papers addressing Selenium treatment technologies. Two additional papers will look at treatment of Sulfate as well as reduction of Sulfate scaling.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W09
IWC 17-53: Review and Evaluation of Water Treatment Technologies for Removal of Selenium and Other Constituents of Concern in an Industrial Application
Shannon Brown, Jason Maughan, and John Pugh, Monsanto, Creve Cœur, MO; Karen Budgell, Golder Associates, Lakewood, CO
Increasingly stringent water quality regulations lead industry to seek cost effective, reliable, and robust water treatment technologies to achieve specific needs of each manufacturing site. A technology screening was conducted based on available technologies and water quality requirements for one industrial site. Bioreactor and reverse osmosis pilot testing is underway targeting removal of selenium and other constituents of concern. Characterization, technology screening, and pilot testing results from one industrial process water are discussed herein.
Discusser: Kar Munirathinam, Tetra Tech, Pittsburgh, PA
IWC 17-54: High Sulfate Mining Wastewater Treatment by Two-Stage Chemical Precipitation Process
Hillary Kronebusch and Srikanth Muddasani, Veolia Water Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA
A pilot study was conducted on gold mine wastewater to evaluate the performance of a process developed to treat high sulfate wastewaters for sulfate removal to less than 100 mg/l. The process precipitates sulfate as a highly insoluble calcium sulfoaluminate mineral known as Ettringite. Ettringite sludge is further processed to recover aluminum which is a critical reagent. Pilot study results along with preliminary costs will be presented and discussed.
Discusser: Alberto Gonzalez, Teck Metals Ltd., Trail, BC, Canada
IWC 17-55: Paste and Thickened Tailings Water Benefits – Case Studies
Jerold Johnson and Wei Xie, WesTech Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT
Water losses in mining are to evaporation, seepage, and water trapped with the solids. The use of paste and thickened tailings technology and deposition methods can reduce the water loss in each of these categories. The water is recovered at the thickener while producing a non-Newtonian suspension underflow that achieves a higher final density of the tailings which also greatly lowers the risk of dam failures. This paper provides two case studies demonstrating this.
Discusser: Come Pretorius, Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC, Canada
IWC 17-56: Considerations for Selenium Treatment of Mine-Impacted Waters
Joseph Tamburini, P.E. and Lauren Lundquist, Tetra Tech, Denver, CO
Mine-impacted water occurs as surface run-off and ground water seepage contacts waste rock from previous mining operations, and may contain selenium from waste rock and nitrate from residual blasting residue. These dissolved constituents are difficult to remove from mine-impacted water via conventional chemical treatment approaches. This paper will discuss important criteria to consider to select the best technology for treatment, and strengths and weaknesses of different technologies.
Discusser: Jonathan Witt, J.R. Simplot Co., Boise, ID
CCR…Not the Rock Band You Were Thinking Of
IWC Rep: Jay Harwood, SUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions, Oakville, ON, Canada
Session Chair: Dave Riedel, Arcadis, Washington, D.C.
Discussion Leader: Derek Henderson, Duke Energy, Raleigh, NC
In the past few years, the power industry has developed a new appreciation for handling coal combustion residuals (CCR) due to increased regulatory focus. Plants are replacing conventional, water-intensive handling methods with dry and ZLD systems. These changes have significant impacts on the Plant water balance and require a holistic evaluation of all processes which utilize water, even those not related to CCR handling.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W04/A W09
IWC 17-57: ELG and CCR Rule Implementation: Treatment and Handling of General Plant Wastewater Flows
Chloe Grabowski, HDR, Missoula, MT
This paper will focus on a planning study conducted at a large coal fired power generating facility in North America for the purpose of developing design requirements for the treatment and handling of general plant wastewater (GPWW) flows through the use of settling basins. Following implementation of the CCR rule and revised ELGs it will be necessary to handle and treat GPWW flows separately.
Discusser: Lars Ellingson, Burns & McDonnell, Centennial, CO
IWC 17-58: Proven Water Treatment Installation for CCR Rule Ash Pond Closure
Thomas Lawry and John Van Gehuchten, McKim & Creed, Inc., Sewickley, PA; Rick Petrosino and Gayla Fecher, Envirogen Technologies, Inc., East Windsor, NJ
New regulations for disposal of coal combustion residuals from electric utilities require an innovative solution to treat a varying waste stream whose primary contaminants of concern are lead, copper, thallium, arsenic and selenium. This paper examines a proven mobile water treatment system that can be effectively adapted for both short and long term fluctuations in flow rate and contaminant concentrations using a combination of physical/chemical treatment, proprietary adsorbents and filtration.
Discusser: Brett Housley, P.E., WesTech Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT
IWC 17-59: Closing the Bottom Ash Loop – Pilot Testing Treatment and Reuse for FGD Makeup
Chad Roby, CH2M, P.E., BCEE, Columbus, OH; Robert Muehlenkamp, P.E., We Energies, Milwaukee, WI; Thomas Higgins, Ph.D., P.E., CH2M, Reston, VA
The 2015 ELGs ban discharge of ash transport water. Many power stations will continue to use their wet-sluicing bottom ash systems in a closed-loop operation. A purge from the system will likely be necessary. The ELGs allow use of transport water for FGD make-up water. The industry has not yet defined what impact this would have. This study included conducting bench scale testing followed by pilot testing to determine what impact ash transport water would have on FGD operations.
Discusser: Steve Winter, Wood, Cambridge, ON, Canada
IWC 17-60: What Happens to my non-CCR Streams?
Jason Eichenberger and Samantha Tewel, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO
Many existing surface impoundments receive non-CCR streams; however, new process ponds or other treatment methods may be required at many power plants for future CCR compliance. After removal of CCR flows, the remaining flows will make a large impact on constituent levels, potentially causing them to exceed the anticipated future permit limits. This paper highlights several factors for process pond and tank-based treatment designs at confidential plant sites and presents lessons learned and sampling recommendations.