Tuesday, November 14
Technical Sessions – 8:00 a.m.-12:00 noon
Produced Water Experiences, and Improved Evaluation Techniques for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Systems
IWC Rep: Debbie Bloom, Wheaton, IL
Session Chair: Ivan Morales, Devon Canada, Calgary, AB, Canada
Discussion Leader: Mike Dejak, Eco-Tec, Calgary, AB, Canada
Papers being presented will relay applicable knowledge to Evaporator performance in a brownfield practical case study, OTSG performance evaluation including scale inhibitor selection, assessing cleanliness and maintenance requirements, and mitigation of off spec water conditions to minimize integrity impact to the OTSG’s. Improved ion exchange audit methods to make it current with existing technologies, and overview of the measurement of a key indicator in Produced Water as Oil in Water (are also discussed). The session will cover Operational hands on experience, plant design evaluation, and measurement techniques for Produced Water systems.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W09; W12
IWC 17-29: Water Balance Optimization for an Oil Sands Producer in Western Canada
Greg Mandigo, Aquatech International, Hartland, WI
Water and energy are clearly interdependent and this is never more apparent than in the steam-based enhanced oil recovery projects of Western Canada. In such processes, an extremely high value must be placed on water recovery: higher water recovery leads directly to higher available steam generation rates and consequentially, higher levels of oil production. This is especially true for projects that use once-through steam generators for steam production. Such systems have historically been designed with produced water treatment systems that achieve the necessary OTSG feed water quality but simultaneously have little water treatment infrastructure for the recycle of OTSG blowdown. This paper studies the optimizations made to one such brownfield Oil Sands project in Alberta and details how a VTFF evaporation system was designed to realize the value of water.
Discusser: Rudy Tamayo, Solaris Management Consultants, Calgary, AB, Canada
IWC 17-30: Monitoring and Evaluating Scale Formation in Once-Through Steam Generators
René Bélanger, P.Eng., Daniel Di Bon, P.Eng., and Stephen Wight, Baker Hughes, a GE company, Sturgeon County, AB, Canada
Online and analytical methods have been developed for monitoring and evaluating the amount of scale or fouling formation in once-through steam generators so that the equipment integrity is not compromised by over-heating due to excessive scale/fouling while maximizing steam output for oil production. This paper reviews the advantages and limitations of these monitoring practices which provide the decision makers with a higher level of confidence in assessing their boiler cleanliness and scheduling maintenance requirements.
Discusser: Tom Reinders, M.Eng., P.Eng., Devon, Calgary, AB, Canada
IWC 17-31: A Modern Approach to Elution Studies of Produced Water Softeners
Chris Friesen and Chris Graham, Purolite, Red Deer, AB, Canada; Joel Arthurs, Cenovus Energy, Inc., Bonnyville, AB, Canada
Elution studies of ion exchange equipment have been used to optimize the mechanical and chemical aspects of the regeneration step for decades. The study could be as simple as monitoring the regeneration effluent with a hydrometer to confirm a minimum regeneration strength is achieved. This paper explores the use of improved testing methodologies to fine-tune the analysis of the elution streams as well as provides some valuable “rules of thumb” for interpreting the data. Examples of elution studies performed at various Western Canada produced water sites will be provided.
Discusser: Craig Brown, P.Eng., Chemionex Inc., Pickering, ON, Canada
IWC 17-32: Measurement of Oil in Water and Water Soluble Organics in SAGD Produced Water
Martin Godfrey, Nalco Champion, Eagan, MN; Logan LaRocque and Corbin Ralph, Nalco Champion, Fort McMurray, AB, Canada
Water produced from the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process for heavy oil production must be recycled for steam generation. The produced water contains both oil and functionalized hydrocarbons that are soluble in water. Both the oil in water and the soluble organic material cause a variety of deposition problems that can be costly production bottlenecks, most notably produced water cooler fouling and steam generator coke formation. The present study focuses on methods for field analysis of the organic components in the produced water. Commercially available instruments were used with techniques suitable for routine analysis. Two main detection methods were studied, fluorescence and infrared absorbance.
Discusser: Greta Zornes, Ph.D., ConocoPhillips, New Orleans, LA
Innovative Treatment Technologies
IWC Rep: Jim Summerfield, DOW Chemical Company, Saginaw, MI
Session Chair: Bryan Hansen, Burns & McDonnell, Centennial, CO
Discussion Leader: Brad Spindler, Wunderlich-Malec Engineering, Green Bay, WI
Development of new treatment technologies and application of existing technologies in innovative ways will always be of interest throughout the industry. Reduction of capital and operating costs as well as environmental impacts is spurred on those willing to think outside the box and try something different. This session includes papers that touch on technologies that can be applied in a variety of applications including a non-phosphorous cooling water treatment program, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes, electrodialysis reversal, and multi-effect desalination adsorption.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W09
IWC 17-33: Implementation of a Non-Phosphorous Cooling Water Treatment Program for an Open Recirculating Cooling System with Highly Stressed Heat Exchangers
Robin Wright, GE Water and Process Technologies, Ensenada, PR; Timothy Eggert, GE Water and Process Technologies, Seal Beach, CA ; Caroline Sui and Rober Hendel GE Water and Process Technologies, Trevose, PA; Alexander Lazariciu, GE Water and Process Technologies, Walnut Creek, CA
This paper discusses the development of a new non-phosphorous chemical treatment program. The new program is now being used successfully in an open-recirculating cooling system with highly-stressed heat exchangers. The case study focuses on a reactor cooling system where traditional chemical programs failed to provide adequate protection against scaling, fouling and corrosion. The improved treatment approach provides excellent deposit and corrosion control, even without the need to utilize sulfuric acid for pH adjustment.
Discusser: Jasbir Gill, Nalco Champion, an Ecolab Company, Naperville, IL
IWC 17-34: Ceramic Ultrafiltration Membranes with Improved Economics, Operability, and Process Design Flexibility
Brian Wise, Dr. Stanton Smith, and Dr. Winnie Shih, Nanostone Water, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN
With the latest advances in ceramic ultrafiltration (CUF) membrane manufacturing the capital costs are now competitive to polymeric hollow fiber UF (PUF) membranes. CUF membranes have longer life, are more robust, and have shown a freedom from operational limitations that plague PUF membranes, i.e., maintaining a high flux rate in cold water and sustainable operation in a wide range of water quality conditions. Case studies presented to highlight these features in a variety of applications.
Discusser: Lars Ellingson, Burns & McDonnell, Centennial, CO
IWC 17-35: A Case Study of the First Installation of a New Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) Technology
Jeff Tate, Agape Water Solutions, Inc., Harleysville, PA; Erik Caldwell, Northeast Water Services, Inc., Foxborough, MA
A new and innovative Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) Technology was recently introduced to treat high TDS waters. The next ED was developed by the leader of Electrodeionization (EDI) modules, and utilizes a unique membrane and mechanical design. The first commercial system was recently installed. This paper will review the technology and challenges of the first installation. This includes the application of the technology to recover Reverse Osmosis concentrate waste water, system design and first year performance.
Discusser: Jofre Dos Santos, Jr., Wunderlich-Malec Engineering, Green Bay, WI
IWC 17-36: High Efficiency Recovery of RO Reject Brine via Adsorption and Very Low-Grade Heat
Kristav Childress and Joseph Ng, Medad Technologies, Singapore; Kim Choon Ng, Water Desalination and Reuse Center, Saudi Arabia
Inland RO plants generate large amounts of reject brine. Expensive disposal methods – injection & lagoons – waste water. Thermal technologies, such as Multi-Effect Distillation (MED), can recover this water using expensive steam and chemicals. MED efficiency is reduced by high ambient temperatures. Adsorption Desalination (AD), powered only by low-grade (85°C) heat, recovers reject water and provides cooling/low pressure to counter high ambient temperatures. AD-recovered water has low TDS for important uses like boiler feed water.
Discusser: Jane Kucera, Nalco Water, an Ecolab Company, Naperville, IL
From Waste to Water – Industrial Water Reuse Success Stories
IWC Rep: Mike Soller, Bowen Engineering, Indianapolis, IN
Session Chair: John Van Gehutchen, McKim & Creed, Sewickley, PA
Discussion Leader: Mark Owens, SUEZ, Richmond, VA
Dirty wastewater comes from many different places. Treating the water for reuse is a valuable solution for facilities challenged with a limited supply. This session includes 4 papers describing innovative applied technology that has enhanced the economic viability and operation of their plant. These papers describe the treatment of various influents or difficult to discarded waters and how they were recycled for reuse.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W08; W09; W15; W21
IWC 17-37: Conductive Plastic Evaporator Tubes – New Chances for the Water Business
Dirk Moses and Thomas Orth, Technoform Kunststoffprofile GmbH, Lohfelden, Germany
Evaporator tubes are one of the basic components in thermal water treatment applications. Until today, these tubes are made of metal. But now plastics become more and more attractive as heat exchanger materials, especially in harsh chemical environments. Unfortunately, their field of application is limited due to their thermal and mechanical properties. New polymer composites overcome these drawbacks and show good mechanical properties together with excellent thermal performance and outstanding fouling resistance.
IWC 17-38: Start-up of Zero Liquid Discharge System to Recycle and Reuse Biotreated Effluent
Yakup Nurdogan, Ph.D., P.E., James Earley, Ph.D., Paul Usinowicz, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, and Charles Oclassen, Bechtel, Pueblo, CO; Craig Myler, Ph.D., P.E., Bechtel, Reston, VA
The Pueblo Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant is constructed to destroy mustard agent by hot water hydrolysis followed by caustic neutralization. A zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) system was constructed to recover the water from the biotreated hydrolysate. The ZLD system includes an evaporator, crystallizer, and dewatering system to remove dissolved and suspended solids from biotreated effluent. The ZLD system was started in July 2016. More than 80% of the water is recovered and recycled to be reused by the agent hydrolysers, cooling towers, reverse osmosis units, biotreatment system, and offgas treatment system scrubber.
Discusser: Brandon Delis, P.E., Dewberry Engineers, Inc., Charlotte, NC
IWC 17-39: Egypt’s First Zero Liquid Discharge Plant: A Case Study
Hossam El-Fahmy, Egyptian Ethylene and Derivatives Company, Alexandria, Egypt; Nageswara Rao Mikkilineni, Aquatech International, Cannonsburg, PA
The first integrated Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) plant, a landmark water treatment project installed at Egyptian Ethylene and Derivatives Company (ETHYDCO) in Alexandria was designed and supplied by Aquatech. The ZLD system included a Microfiltration system, a High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HEROTM) technology for achieving 97.5% recovery across the membrane system. Permeate from the HEROTM units treated through Fractional Deionization system to produce demineralized water. The reject from the HEROTM and the regeneration waste water is treated through Brine Concentrator and crystallizer to achieve complete ZLD. The Plant was commissioned in April 2016 and in operation since then. The fresh water demand was reduced by 70%, from 2600 to 800 M3/HR.
Discusser: Ed Greenwood, P.Eng., Amec Foster Wheeler, Cambridge, ON, Canada
IWC 17-40: Water Optimization in Combined Cycle Power Plants
Lucas Davis, Brad Buecker, Behrang Pakzadeh, and Brian Clarke, Kiewit Engineering Group Inc., Lenexa, KS
This paper reviews water usage and water discharge for a typical greenfield 1×1 natural gas fired combined cycle power plant to determine what equipment provides the most water savings. The engineered equipment costs, auxiliary power requirements, water usage and water discharge are reviewed from a preliminary engineering standpoint and are intended to give readers enough information to make knowledgeable decisions regarding project costs and water savings, specifically the risks and benefits of internal water recycling.
Discusser: Rudy Labban, P.E., SUEZ, Richmond, VA
Treatment Consideration and approaches for FGD Wastewater Treatment
IWC Rep: Tisha Scroggin, Burns & McDonnell, Chicago, IL
Session Chair: Bill Kennedy, Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC
Discussion Leader: Jeffery Preece, EPRI, Charlotte, NC
This session will discuss a range of topics focusing on source and treatment of ELG targeted constituents. Novel technologies, system designs and process controls are presented with a focus on practical application for meeting the challenging regulatory compliance limits. You will have an opportunity to hear about ongoing work in this area from those involved in project execution and research.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W04/A; W09; W15
IWC 17-41: Investigation of Sources of Nitrate/Nitrite in Wet FGD Wastewater
Gary Blythe and Mandi Richardson, P.E., AECOM, Austin, TX; Paul Chu, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA
Discusser: Jason Baker, American Electric Power, Columbus, OH
IWC 17-42: Extreme Recovery Membrane System Results: Treating FGD Wastewater by Novel Salt Splitter Reverse Osmosis Technology
Malcolm Man, Ben Sparrow, Joshua Zoshi and Megan Low, Saltworks Technologies Inc., Richmond, BC, Canada
Recent regulatory change and private investment in new treatment technologies are rapidly changing the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment landscape. Operators are required to treat FGD wastewater to meet stringent discharge regulations and, often, eliminate wastewater discharge entirely to achieve zero-liquid-discharge (ZLD). Key economic considerations for designers and operators of FGD wastewater treatment and ZLD systems are reviewed while introducing an innovative treatment solution that lowers costs and the amount of waste generated.
Discusser: Dave Riedel, Arcadis, Washington, DC
IWC 17-43: ELG Compliance through ZLD: UIC Wells – A Cost-effective Alternative for the Disposal of Reject Water
Jonathan Shimko and Dale Skoff, Tetra Tech, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA
The utility industry is searching for cost-effective solutions to meet the ELGs. ZLD is attractive, as it provides a longer compliance schedule, but with higher capital and O&M costs. This paper presents a cost-effective alternative to managing reject wastewater from ZLD systems through the direct disposal via Underground Injection Control (UIC) wells. The paper presents costs associated with a UIC well, regulatory and environmental concerns, and treatment consideration for FGD wastewater prior to injection.
Discusser: Ralph Cutler, P.E., WesTech Engineering Inc, Salt Lake City, UT
IWC 17-44: Factors Affecting Arsenic Removal in FGD Wastewater Physical/Chemical Treatment
John Schubert, P.E., HDR, Sarasota, FL
Power Generation Facilities were required under the EPA-promulgated ELGs (now being re-evaluated by EPA) to remove Arsenic to relatively low levels. However, there are differences in the operation of FGD systems that may have an impact on the removal of arsenic under some circumstances. This paper reviews the variables involved, and their potential impact, and presents bench scale data confirming that variations in arsenic solubility and speciation may result in the need for non-standard treatment approaches.
Discusser: Diane Martini, Burns & McDonnell, Chicago, IL