Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania


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Pittsburgh, PA 15222

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Tuesday, June 12, 2018

Technical Sessions

Emergency Repair to the Delaware River Turnpike Bridge

Time: 1:30-5:00 p.m.
Session Chair: James Stump, P.E., Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, Harrisburg, PA; William Wilson, New Jersey Turnpike Authority, Woodbridge, NJ

On January 20, 2017, a full-depth fracture was discovered in the top chord of the Delaware River Turnpike Bridge forcing the immediate closure of this critical river crossing connecting Pennsylvania Turnpike to the New Jersey Turnpike. The fracture occurred in the four-span continuous deck truss unit of this 6571’ bridge. Both Turnpike Agencies, contractors and various consultants worked together in the procurement of services and materials to ensure these repairs were completed in a timely manner. This session will cover the many concurrent tasks associated with the repair to include material evaluation, non-destructive testing, 3D modeling and hands-on inspection.

IBC 18-42: Delaware River Turnpike Bridge Fracture Repair
Richard Schaefer, Xin Li, and Martha Bogle, HNTB, Parsippany, NJ; Frank Corso, New Jersey Turnpike Authority, Woodbridge, NJ

On January 20, 2017, a total fracture was discovered in a deck truss bridge carrying I-276 over the Delaware River. This presentation details the investigation of the cause of the fracture and the design of the repair. The restoration of the truss was executed in only 48 days using a never before attempted method of vertically jacking the deformed truss to correct geometry and then horizontally post tensioning the broken chord back to original loading.

IBC 18-43: Delaware River Bridge Emergency Repairs CM/CI
Francis Carroll, STV Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ

On January 20, 2017 a fractured truss member was discovered at the Delaware River Turnpike Bridge, leading to immediate closure of the bridge. Foundations and temporary jacking towers were constructed to vertically jack the displaced truss to its original configuration. Once vertically jacked, the fractured member was replaced and post -tensioned to obtain its original load. After the repairs were completed the bridge was live load tested and reopened to traffic on March 9, 2017.

IBC 18-44: Emergency Structural Inspection and Laser Scanning to Assess Condition of Fractured Deck Truss
Gregory Johnson, P.E., Greenman Pedersen, Inc., Lebanon, NJ

On January 20, 2017, a fracture was identified in the top (tension) chord of the heaviest load carrying member on the Delaware River Bridge connecting the New Jersey and Pennsylvania Turnpikes requiring immediate 100% hands-on prioritized inspection of all deck truss spans.  Three dimensional modals were developed using data collected by laser survey scanning and were used in conjunction with structural modeling and inspection findings to assess damage and design/construct repairs.

IBC 18-45: Nondestructive Testing and Analysis of the PA / NJ Turnpike Connector Bridge
Francesco Russo, Michael Baker International, Philadelphia, PA

Following the fracture of a top chord in a continuous deck truss due to the presence of an unknown plug weld near a gusset plate connection, an emergency response program consisting of stabilization, repair, and partial replacement of the top chord was carried out. Additionally, several hundred other connections were examined using NDT to determine if the bridge could be safely returned to service following the repair. This paper discusses the NDT and material sampling program and its findings.

IBC 18-46: Material Testing and Forensic Investigation of the Full-Depth Truss Chord Fracture in the Delaware River Turnpike Toll Bridge
Frank Artmont, Andrew Adams, Thomas Murphy, and Travis Hopper, Modejski and Masters, Mechanicsburg, PA; Robert Connor, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

In January 2017, a full-depth fracture was discovered in the top chord of the Delaware River Turnpike Toll Bridge. Material and forensic studies were performed to determine the cause of the failure and assess the bridge’s ability to remain open following repairs. In this presentation, the results of these studies will be presented, the contributing factors that led to the fracture will be explored, and recommendations for addressing similar future failures will be discussed.

IBC 18-47: Instrumentation and Load Testing for Delaware River Turnpike Bridge Emergency Repairs
David Rue, P.E., Andrew Foden, Ph.D., P.E., and Christopher Gentz, P.E., WSP, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ; Zachary Van Brunt, WSP, Inc., Raleigh, NC

On January 20, 2017, a complete fracture of a top chord was discovered on the Delaware River Turnpike Bridge, which substantially altered the forces carried by the structural members. Structural monitoring and load testing was used throughout the emergency repair process to evaluate the restoration of the forces in the structure and its ability to safely carry traffic loads so that the structure could be re-opened to traffic in less than seven weeks.


Rail/Transit, Part 1

Time: 1:30-5:00 p.m.
Session Chair: Elliott Mandel, P.E., AECOM, Arlington, VA

This session highlights the latest knowledge and developing expertise for rail structures. Featured are a broad range of cutting edge topics for rail bridges that will interest owners, analysts, designers and constructors. Presentations include: emerging technologies for High Speed Rail consisting of dynamic analyses, new seismic isolation systems and aerodynamics. Also covered are railroad bridge design, fabrication, construction and inspection efforts. Projects span the globe, from China to California, New York and Maryland.

IBC 18-48: Analysis and Design of a Complex Nonstandard Bridge for California High-Speed Rail Requirements
Ebadollah Honarvar, Arjuna Ranasinghe, Suhail Albhaisi, and Hadi Al-Khateeb, Jacobs, New York, NY

Analysis and design of an elevated deck slab structure, known as pergola, for high-speed rail (HSR) is a challenging task due to the complex superstructure system in combination with track-structure interaction (TSI) and seismic requirements. This paper presents findings of a systematic approach employed to successfully conclude various analyses and to satisfy stringent design requirements for a pergola structure used in the California HSR project using a detailed nonlinear finite-element model (FEM) of the bridge.

IBC 18-49: Shaking Table Tests of an Innovative Steel Damping Bearing for Railway Bridges
Cong Liu, Ph.D., Ri Gao, Junqing Lei, Jiwang Zhan, Yanmei Cao, Meng Ma, Xiaojing Sun, and Wenliang Lu, Beijing Jiaotong University, Haidian, Beijing, China

To mitigate the seismic responses of the railway bridge, an innovative steel damping bearing, based on the conceptions of “function separation”, is developed. A 1:7 scale railway bridge model was tested on the shaking table under 5 ground motions with different PGAs to evaluate the performance of the steel damping bearings. The test results reveal that the steel damping bearing can mitigate the seismic responses of the bridge greatly without leading to large relative displacement.

IBC 18-50: High Speed Rail Bridge Design – Tule River Viaduct
Andrew Kimmle, Carlos Matos, John Finke, and Mike Cronin, Jacobs Engineering, St. Louis, MO

The California High Speed Rail Program is working towards a dedicated passenger route from L.A. to San Francisco. Near Corcoran, the Tule River Viaduct is a 3,500 foot concrete bridge designed to carry the 250 mph train over Poplar Ave., CA SR 43, BNSF, and the Tule River. Primary elements include post-tensioned box girders, straddle bents, and a pergola structure. Discussion includes design, modelling, rail structure interaction, seismic details, dynamic impact, and passenger comfort checks.

IBC 18-51: Inspection and Construction Challenges of The New Portageville Railroad Bridge
Michael Pitacciato, Bureau Veritas North America, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA; Carmen Garozzo, Bergmann Associates, Buffalo, NY

The Portageville Bridge was a single track structure built in 1875. Due to speed restrictions and inability to carry modern rail car loadings of 286k a decision was made to replace the structure. The bridge was replaced by a 483 foot 2 hinged spandrel-braced arch bridge. Including approaches, total length is 963 feet. This paper will explore the structure fabrication and construction challenges which were found and their resolution during the replacement of the structure.

IBC 18-52: Aerodynamic Characteristics of the High-speed Train Running on the Long Span Rail-cum-Road Bridge
Ming Wang, Xiao-Zhen Li, Ph.D., Hai-Qing Sha, and Jun Xiao, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

With the increased tendency for higher speed of the high-speed trains, aerodynamic environment around the train becomes a more essential factor than wheel-rail system. Truss bridge, as the main construct style of large span rail-cum-road bridge, has the complex wind environment, which can significantly affect train’s aerodynamic characteristics. A three-dimensional CFD model is established with the train model moving. It focuses on interpreting the intermittent excitation effect of truss bridge on the train’s aerodynamic characteristics.

IBC 18-53: Challenges Associated with a Multitude of Design Constraints and Stakeholders
Gregor Fahrendorf, Stantec Consulting Services, Laurel, MD

This case study presents the challenges involving the design of a Bridge Replacement Project in Baltimore, MD. The existing concrete arch structure carries Edmondson Avenue over the CSX railroad, Gwynns Falls and a hiker/biker trail. The proposed bridge is designed as a shared use bridge to carry roadway and light rail traffic. The multitude of constraints and stakeholders include the historic nature of the existing bridge, staged construction, two railroads, wetlands, parklands, and numerous utilities.



Time: 1:30-5:00 p.m.
Session Chair: Steve Shanley, P.E., Allegheny County, Department of Public Works, Pittsburgh, PA

From Anchorage cracks on the Delaware Memorable Bridge to Fatigue cracking during construction on the New Port Viaduct, New Castle County in Delaware.  This session also includes Automated Load Rating and Evaluation Tool (ALERT) to help simplify load rating on complex bridges and the inspection and load ratings of the LA 47 bridge over the Gulf Intercoastal Waterway, Orleans Parish, Louisiana.   Rope access and unmanned aerial system (UAS) solutions will also be covered in a case study on the William H. Natcher Cable Stayed Bridge Inspection.  We will wrap up this session with some of the fundamental process activities involved with shop fabrication processes, fabrication and challenges.

IBC 18-54: Anchorage Crack Investigation for Delaware Memorial Bridge
Gregor Wollmann, HNTB, Blacksburg, VA; Shekhar Scindia and Brian Lutes, Delaware River and Bay Authority, New Castle, DE; Steven Richards, HNTB, Neward, NJ

The Delaware Memorial Bridge with its sister suspension bridges represents a vital traffic link carrying I 295 over the Delaware River. Due to concerns about the stability of diagonal cracks in the gravity concrete blocks anchoring the main suspension cables, an instrumentation program and anchorage assessment was initiated. This paper describes the findings of the instrumentation program, the analysis approach to verify stability of the anchorages, and repairs which were completed successfully during Summer 2017.

IBC 18-55: Combined UAS and Rope Access Solutions for Structure Evaluations
John Zuleger and Jeffrey Sams, Michael Baker International, Louisville, KY

Michael Baker International performed a routine and fracture critical inspection of the William H. Natcher Bridge in May 2017. The cable-stayed structure was inspected utilizing a combined access solution of hands-on rope access techniques and UAS scanning. UAS detection capabilities were verified by inspectors rappelling a sample of cables. The UAS also increased safety by minimizing man-at-risk hours. The collaborative effort led to one new major deficiency finding along the length of a cable.

IBC 18-56: Low-Cycle Fatigue Cracking of DelDOT BR 1-501: A Case Study
James Bellenoit, P.E., Daniel Radle, Jr., P.E., and Neil Shemo, P.E., AECOM Technical Services, Mechanicsburg, PA

Rehabilitation of the Newport Viaduct began in 2010 and complete in 2015. Various construction stages temporarily shifted traffic onto the outside shoulders during that period. In March 2015, fatigue cracks were discovered in the diaphragms of the steel tub fascia girders at interior piers at the tops of internal plate diaphragms and external connection plates. Metallurgical examination indicated the cracks propagated at high growth rates indicative of high amplitude stress cycles. The cause was investigated.

IBC 18-57: Complex Bridge Load Rating: Automated Load Rating and Evaluation Tool (ALERT)
Jason Stith, Ph.D., P.E., S.E. and Chou-Yu Yong, P.E., S.E., ENV-SP, Michael Baker International, Louisville, KY; Parker Thompson, Michael Baker International, Chicago, IL

For the most complex bridges, such as cable-stayed and arches, commercially available load rating software cannot be used to directly rate the bridges. This presents a challenge when a bridge rating needs to be updated due to section loss overload permitting. Michael Baker International has developed an Automated Load Evaluation & Rating Tool (ALERT) which is Excel-based proprietary software that integrates the live load analysis with specification checking, and subsequently provides the load rating.

IBC 18-58: Load Rating of the LA 47 Bridge over Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
Durk Krone, John Richard, P.E., and Dong Wang, Ph.D., TRC Engineers Inc., Baton Rouge, LA; William Metcalf, Jr., P.E., Louisiana DOT, Baton Rouge, LA; Xianzhi “Sage” Liu, P.E., TRC Engineers Inc., Austin, TX

The LA 47 Bridge over the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish, Louisiana. The bridge extends an overall length of 6,622 feet, with 69 spans. The three main spans consist of an anchored-cantilever and tied-arch suspended truss. TRC conducted a load rating that was validated by FEM modeling of framing complexities associated with the tied arch, including other structural segments, of the bridge to certify the final BrR models.

IBC 18-59: Steel Fabrication For Bridge Construction – A Primer for the Technical Professionals
Richard Bogovich, P.E., Bureau Veritas North America Inc, Pittsburgh, PA

Fabrication of structural steel requires various technical professionals.  This paper will provide an overview of fundamental process activities and examples of challenges encountered requiring involvement of these professionals, including a fabrication process life cycle, the role of Quality Control and Quality Assurance, and implications of the QA/QC strategy selected by the owners.  Manufacturing processes will be reviewed and examples of issues and problems that have complicated the fabrication process that could have been prevented.



Time: 1:30-5:00 p.m.
Session Chair: Gary Runco, P.E., Virginia DOT, Fairfax, VA

This session on Innovation is a collection of varied subjects from historic rehabilitations to new seismic isolation utilizing new dissipation devices. Also included is as study on cost effective design-build for a major cable stayed bridge and the use of 3D modeling and visualization.  Whether assessing old bridges, or developing and presenting concepts for new bridges, this session has a little something for everyone.

IBC 18-60: Dehumidification Breathes New Life into the Suspension Cables on the Delaware Memorial Bridges
Shane Beabes, AECOM, Wilmington, DE; Barry Colford and Joshua Pudleiner, AECOM, Philadelphia, PA; Shekhar Scindia and Shoukry Elnahal, Delaware River and Bay Authority, New Castle, DE

The dehumidification of the main cables of the twin suspension bridges of the Delaware Memorial Bridge involves injecting dry air into the cables to remove water and sustain relative humidity below a threshold where corrosion ceases. The project is a complex blend of structural, mechanical, electrical and controls engineering. It is only the second of its kind in the US and will extend the service life of these critical elements of the bridges.

IBC 18-61: Smithland Bridge – Virtual Navigation Modeling Drives Design
Tony Hunley and Taylor Perkins, Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Lexington, KY; Chris Kuntz, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Paducah, KY

The US 60 Bridge at Smithland KY crosses a serpentine S-curved stretch of the Cumberland River. Early in the project, an innovative approach to addressing navigation industry impacts and expediting the Coast Guard approval process saved significant project re-design time and costs. Navigation modeling performed by experienced barge captains using realistic 3-D virtual environment simulation methods were utilized. The resulting span length requirement and pier placement impacts to navigation were surprising.

IBC 18-62: Fatigue Behavior and Field Performance of Press-Brake-Formed Steel Tub Girder Superstructures
Karl Barth, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV; Greg Michaelson, Marshall University, Huntington, WV

This paper and presentation are focused on the assessment of modular shallow trapezoidal boxes fabricated from cold-bent structural steel plate using standard mill plate widths and thicknesses. A technical working group within the Steel Market Development Institute’s Short Span Steel Bridge Alliance (SSSBA), led by the current authors, was charged with the development of this concept. Previous research efforts have focused on characterizing the system’s flexural bending capacity. This paper will provide an overview of experimental investigations into the system’s fatigue performance as well as a discussion of two field implementations, each with unique deck options.

IBC 18-63: Shear and Flexural Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Bridges Using Titanium Alloy Bars
Christopher Higgins, Ph.D., P.E., Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR

Titanium alloy bars (TiABs) were developed to strengthen deficient reinforced concrete (RC) bridges. TiABs provide high strength, ductility, durability, and the ability to fabricate mechanical anchorages at the ends. Laboratory experiments on full-size RC bridge girders with TiABs, in both shear and flexural failure modes, showed increased strength, significant visual distress prior to failure, nonductile failure modes shifted to ductile modes, and design approaches conservatively predicted strength using the TiABs yield strength.

IBC 18-64: Investigation into the Behavior of an Open Web Steel Joist Bridge
Zahra Andalib  and William Collins, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS; Piero Caputo, Sattar Dorafshan, and Marc Maguire, Utah State University, Logan, UT

Open web steel joists (OWSJ) are lighter than comparable rolled steel shapes, allowing for faster and less costly construction, as well as reduction in material cost. There is currently a lack of understanding in shear behavior, composite action, and live load distribution for OWSJ bridge systems. This study includes FE modeling as well as field testing measuring service strains and deflections. Finally, a cost analysis will compare bridges fabricated with OWSJ to the other systems

IBC 18-65: AASHTO T-19 Subcommittee Update on BIM for Bridges and Structures
Jason Hastings, M.C.E., P.E., Delaware DOT, Dover, DE

This presentation will provide an update on recent activities of the AASHTO T-19 Subcommittee on Software. The primary focus of T-19 is to move forward Building Information Models (BIM) for Bridges and Structures. The overview will include recent activities completed and the path forward and will highlight work associated with the associated pooled fund study and pilot projects in progress.



W-4: FRP Composite Bridge Materials: Design, Build, Strengthen

Part I: Using FRP Composites to Design, Build and Strengthen Bridges for a More Resilient Infrastructure

Time: 1:00 – 4:30 p.m.

Presented by: American Composites Manufacturers Association

FRP composites are a proven innovative and durable material that has been used in over 500 bridges in North America for over 20 years. Composites are faster to install and require minimal disruption while in service to extend the service life of bridge structures. Composites features such as lightweight and prefabrication have reduced assembly and installation time resulting in lower installation costs and delivery for new construction. Standards and specification development provide civil/structural engineers with much needed tools to design and specify with composites. However, it is becoming very important to build bridge structures that are more resilient to natural and man-made disasters. Attendees will learn about:

  1. Changes to the AASHTO bridge design specifications for GFRP rebar
  2. Recent advancements in the delivery of FRP composites infrastructure by Florida DOT and their strategy for adoption of uniform standards
  3. Design and construction of lightweight bridge wind fairings
  4. Using FRP composite systems to rehabilitate critical bridge structures
  5. Highlighting projects where FRP systems have been used to provide resiliency on bridges, allowing them to recover rapidly from disruptive events.

Part II: Eliminating Corrosion in Small to Medium Road Bridges with Composite Materials

Time: 4:30 – 5:00 p.m.

Presented by: Wagners Composite Fibre Technologies

Between 2005 to 2010 Wagners CFT Manufacturing supplied five bridge superstructures into the USA Road Network. This Work Shop will open up discussions an investigate those and other installations, in the USA and Australia covering the in-field performance of these Innovative bridges over the thirteen year period since the first installation. These bridges are constructed using corrosion resistant materials to offer long maintenance free lives, with principal structural elements made from Fibre Composites. In addition the Work Shop will seek to summarize the current state of the art of Composite Fibre Bridge Construction in Australia and conclude with lessons observed and documented over a 15 year period in the design, development and implementation of Fibre Composite Road Bridges.