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“Best of IWC”

Webinar Series

The Best of IWC Webinar Series is a great way to preview the high quality technical content presented at the International Water Conference®.

  • Attendees can earn 1 PDH credit from the comfort of their own computer.
  • It is FREE to attend, but registration is required for pdh certification.  Multiple viewers on one computer will be required to sign in on the required form distributed at the webinar.

Note: Individual NY P.E.’s requesting the 1 PDH must sign into the webinar via the link provided when registered and are also required to sign a login sheet after completion of the webinar. NY P.E.’s attending the webinar as a group require only one person to register for the webinar. That person is the room moderator for the group and must sign into the webinar via the link provided when registered. Each attendee in the group will be required to sign in and out on the login sheet. The times and signatures are verified by the room moderator.

Topic: FGD

Thursday, May 16, 2019; 12:00 Noon to 1:00 pm EST  – –  Group Log In Sheet

Jeffery Preece and Trent Rogers, Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC; Anthony (A.J.) Gerbino, Ph.D., OLI Systems, Inc., Cedar Knolls, NJ

IWC 18-11: Investigation of Constituent Volatility in Thermal Treatment of Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater

There is limited publicly available information that provides details on transfer mechanisms and volatility of certain species during evaporative treatment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Understanding these mechanisms will assist in developing strategies that minimize or mitigate the need for constituent-specific treatment of distillate produced by thermal evaporation. This approach could lead to a reduction of overall cost in producing high purity distillate by avoiding post-treatment for certain constituents of interest. This study analyzes the chemical properties of various FGD wastewater sources as they undergo evaporative treatment simulations in OLI Systems software. Results from the software models are compared to laboratory and pilot data and carryover mechanisms are explored. Laboratory and pilot testing of thermal evaporation with FGD wastewater were conducted to study constituent carryover (e.g., mercury, boron, and iodide) from the mother liquor stream to the distillate stream. Validation of testing results suggest mechanical mechanisms of carryover for certain species is not the main contributor, as the use of techniques preventing droplet carryover were deployed. The data therefore suggest the primary mechanism of transfer is motivated by chemical interactions and volatility which are not well understood. The economics of separating salts and other constituents from water are variable but thermal evaporation approaches typically come at a high cost due to pre-treatment requirements, energy demand, use of specialty materials, and other factors. There is an opportunity to reduce overall cost of treatment by understanding chemical mechanisms and identifying holistic solutions that manage constituents based on economical treatment strategies.

Frank Sassaman, Jr. and Kylie Henline, Evoqua Water Technologies, Warrendale, PA; Charles McCloskey, Evoqua Water Technologies, Schaumburg, IL

IWC 18-12: Unforeseen Consequences of Cycling-Up Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Scrubber Water

Some unintended consequences of cycling up FGD scrubber wastewater are highlighted in this paper including creating a waste stream that becomes more difficult to treat and more difficult to analyze. The paper presents data showing increasingly imprecise analysis of selenium and arsenic that is proportional to the TDS. It also shows how concentration of very difficult to treat organic arsenic compounds can result in non-compliance with 2015 Effluent Limitation Guidelines (ELG). In laboratory tests, a sample of FGD blowdown containing 20 g/L of TDS was gradually concentrated using reverse osmosis to TDS concentrations of 20, 30, 35, 50, and 70 g/L. There are currently two primary technologies for removing selenium, arsenic, and mercury from FGD blowdown; zero valent iron (ZVI) and biological. Our tests focused on ZVI since biological treatment is generally limited to waters having TDS levels of less than 35 g/L. Treatment became increasingly difficult as the TDS approached 50 g/L. The sample that was used for testing contained approximately 3 µg/L of total arsenic, below the 2015 Effluent Limitation Guidelines (ELG). Analysis showed that the arsenic was present in the organic form. In general, organic arsenic is virtually untreatable with either biological or ZVI technologies. When the sample was concentrated by a factor of 3.5 (from 20 g/L to 70 g/L TDS) the arsenic concentrated up to 10.5 µg/L (exceeding the current ELG and being untreatable in the organic form). In addition to being difficult to treat, analysis for selenium and arsenic became increasingly difficult as TDS concentrations reached and exceeded 35 g/L. It is believed this is due to the high salt content. Data for selenium showed that at TDS concentrations of 50 g/L, analysis of identical samples using the same analytical method differed by up to 83%. Also, as the sample was concentrated, the analytical results for arsenic concentrated at a faster rate than did the theoretical TDS increase. At 70 g/L TDS, analysis showed as much as 63% more arsenic than should have been present. Overall, the data in this study indicates that cycling-up FGD scrubber water may make reliable analysis of key parameters such as arsenic, selenium, and heavy metals extremely difficult. The paper will also present results obtained when samples were speciated for selenium and arsenic and when identical samples were split among three different analytical labs, with each lab using the same analytical method.


Topic:  Mining

Thursday, June 20, 2019; 12:00 Noon to 1:00 pm EST – Register Here

Mohan Badami, Keith Benson, Kashi Banerjee, and Charles Blumenschein, Veolia Water Technologies, Moon Township, PA

IWC 18-38: Three Years of Full-Scale Water Treatment Plant Operational Experience from Rare Earth Mining Facility

A centralized water treatment plant was built in 2012 in a rare earth mining facility in the Southwestern part of the United States to treat well water and water recycled from various systems. The objective of the treatment plant was to produce demineralized water with conductivity < 10 µs/cm for boiler feed and other plant areas. This paper will describe and discuss various treatment steps and will present three years of operational data.

Shannon Brown and John Pugh, Bayer U.S.-Crop Science, Creve Coeur, MO; Molly Prickett, Bayer U.S.-Crop Science, Soda Springs, ID; Matthew Wright, NewFields, Missoula, MT

IWC 18-40: Learnings from Phased Installation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier for Mine Water Treatment

Weathering oxidation can enable release of oxidized selenium compounds from pyrite and sphalerite laden overburden into surface runoff water and groundwater. The remote nature inherent to mining operations can preclude access to utilities and infrastructure necessary for many water treatment systems. Therefore, passive biotreatment utilizing naturally occurring endemic microbes supported by emplacement of organic matter within an engineered interception and treatment system was selected. Phased installation of this permeable reactive barrier afforded opportunities for optimization.


Topic:  Water Projects

Tuesday, July 16, 2019; 12:00 Noon to 1:00 pm EST – Register Here

Russell Huffmyer, McKim & Creed, Sewickley, PA

IWC 18-05: Utilizing Progressive Design-Build to Efficiently Complete Projects in the Upstream Oil & Gas Sector

The upstream O&G sector utilizes a significant amount of water to drill and develop their wells and generates a significant amount of brine wastewater. In some industries infrastructure projects, such as water & wastewater pipelines and facilities, are developed utilizing the traditional design-bid-build project delivery model. The Design-Bid-Build concept, by its nature, results in extended delivery schedules and higher costs because of its linear progress and losing the opportunity for the constructors, and equipment suppliers to provide input into the design. In contrast, recent projects have shown that the design-build delivery method allows for the engineer to work closely with the Owner from early in the project to develop expectations and clearly define successful project outcomes, which in turn provides a higher probability of achieving successful project execution. From a pursuit perspective, this delivery method is not easily achieved, as the typical Owner in Upstream Oil & Gas operations have not been exposed to the design-build concept, thus creating a significant up-hill challenge to achieve an understanding and acceptance of this delivery method. This paper will explore the methodologies to achieve a trusting relationship with the Owner in developing a project strategy to meet their operational needs, educating the Owner and other stakeholders on the benefits of the design-build delivery method, developing the phased project approach to achieve expedited project outcomes, and delivering a commissioned project that has surpassed the hurdles of the traditional project delivery methods. To accomplish this, the paper will evaluate two case studies, which consist of a produced water gathering, distribution, & disposal project in the Haynesville Shale Play of Louisiana and a freshwater intake, pump station, and pipeline from the Ohio River in the Marcellus/Utica Shale Play of southwestern Pennsylvania.

Michael Soller, P.E., DBIA, Josh Thomas, P.E., and Ben Klick, E.I., Bowen Engineering Corporation, Indianapolis, IN

IWC 18-06: With the Chemistry Set, What’s Next? A Case Study to Deliver a Fast-Tracked EPC Industrial Wastewater Project

The key to complete a water or wastewater project is to understand the influent and effluent chemistry and agree on the treatment process flow sheet. Significant time is sometimes required to achieve stakeholder agreement on an optimized treatment scheme which can ultimately delay the start of detailed design and construction in the field. These delays can increase the design cost, and the construction complexity and cost due to overall schedule compression because the project end date does not change. For industrial wastewater projects it is common that the design time to confirm the treatment processes and finish the balance of plant design can equal or exceed the expected construction time. This occurs despite a substantial majority of the cost and risk is related to the procurement and construction of the project. This paper provides a case study of an industrial wastewater project at a gas fired power plant which had significant design delays due to incomplete water chemistry, or incomplete design information prior to and during detailed design. The case study includes a comparison between the initial and the actual implementation time for the detailed design and construction. It identifies the reasons the detailed design was delayed and the impact to the initial project schedule. It also describes the methods used to complete the design in phases to achieve the earliest start of field operations. The case study provides the methods used to estimate the increased construction cost and time impact which may have occurred due to delayed detailed design efforts, and the change in direction because of having such data. This study also describes the use of design phase gates and 3D BIM technology to focus the design and modular construction efforts to achieve the largest benefit for the project. The phase gate approach describes the scope verification process used to measure intermediate design results, assure design compliance and mitigate scope creep and design entropy. This discrete process provided real time data during design which was carried over for use during the field craft production planning. The study concludes with the recommendations for several optimization milestones that could be used by Owners and EPC contractors to evaluate the impact of extended design time versus the time required to build the project in the field.


Topic:  Industrial Wastewater

Tuesday, August 27, 2019; 12:00 Noon to 1:00 pm EST – Register Here

Greg Wood, i2m LLC, Raleigh, NC; Sreenath Kariveti, Mann+Hummel USA Inc., Raleigh, NC

IWC 18-58: Ceramic Hollow Fiber Membrane Technology for Industrial Wastewater Treatment in Recycle/Reuse Applications

Crossflow membrane technology has gained more interest recently with an important focus in treating high total suspended solids (TSS) concentration and oily wastewater applications to recover the valuable products and reduce total waste volume. Ceramic Hollow Fiber Membranes (CHFM) show the advantage of a high volumetric filtration area and high flux rates compared to other ceramic membranes with different geometric membrane designs. CHFM’s performance parameters resulting from pilot tests are given with respect to the effect of membrane pore size, crossflow velocity, transmembrane pressure, the separation characteristics and the cleaning efficiency while achieving highest solids concentrations (>10%) and stable operational flux conditions. The present study is focused on CHFM’s pilot tests with Microfiltration (MF) and Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane pore sizes (30-130nm) are developed and tested with three different industrial wastewater qualities and it shows significant filtration performance advantages and huge potential for cost savings in terms of total cost of solution. The first application deals with metal finishing industry wastewater filtration of high organic suspended solids with oily compounds and produce reusable clean water for further reusing in the production process with further treatment. The CHFM filtration performance shows high permeate quality (turbidity <1NTU) and stable filtration flux in operation. CHFM’s MF and UF membranes demonstrate flux values of 100-340LMH while concentrating wastewater from 1.2% to >11% solids thereby reducing total wastewater volume. In the second application, the CHFM’s are tested in algae dewatering application. During the filtration performance tests using MF and UF membranes, a stable flux with no in increase in TMP as concentration increased further. The different pore size membranes fluxes range from 150-250 LMH with retentate microalgae TSS concentration factor of 30x. The TSS results show a significant pre-concentration of algae from 0.15% to a dry weight percentage of 5%. The third application is dewatering of an anaerobic digester biomass wastewater using microfiltration and ultrafiltration CHFM’s. The feed wastewater stream is highly organic (COD~10,000ppm) with TSS ~ 1.5%. The crossflow filtration of 80nm and 30nm shows stable flux performance in the range of 100-130 LMH with high concentrations of biomass up to TSS >8%. The filtration performance parameters resulting from experimental investigations show the cleaning efficiency of the newly developed ceramic hollow fiber membranes compared to conventional dewatering technologies.

Rebeccah Chapman, Frontier Water Systems, Salt Lake City, Utah; Luke Halverson and Logan Terheggen, Frontier Water Systems, Atlanta, GA

IWC 18-59: Overcoming Challenges in Biological Treatment of Selenium Containing Wastewaters by Advancements in Bioreactor Design

This paper covers engineering advancements that have been made in bioreactor design for selenium treatment which overcome the challenges associated with conventional bioreactor design. Specifically, a two-stage approach has been developed to allow for a smaller footprint, prefabricated and modular bioreactor design suitable for a wide variety of water treatment applications. Several case studies support motivations behind the reactor design, exemplify treatment capabilities, and show versatility in treatment applications.


Topic:  Sustainability

Thursday, September 19, 2019; 12:00 Noon to 1:00 pm EST – Register Here

Bridget Finnegan and Michael Pudvay, P.E., Veolia Water Technologies, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA; John He, P.E., Veolia Water Technologies, Inc., Cary, NC; Lucas Davis, P.E., Kiewit Engineering Group, Inc., Lenexa, KS

IWC 18-18: Sustainable Alternatives to Power Plant Make-up Water: Using Treated Municipal Wastewater

Using treated municipal effluent as make-up water for power plants presents obvious benefits, including cost reduction and sustainability. The methods and benefits of using treated municipal effluent are compared in this paper for three separate power plants in North America. Each power plant includes a nitrification stage and a solids removal process to treat the municipal effluent before it can be used. However, the stability of the source water and the environmental benefits outweigh the treatment costs.

Mary Wolter Glass, Mexel USA, LLC, Arlington, VA

IWC 18-19: Innovations in Water Treatments Employing Filming Amine Technology

Filming amines are receiving increased attention for use in cooling water applications from commercial and institutional cooling towers to large power plants with once-through cooling. Once considered only as a chemical to address corrosion, its unique chemistry is now being explored by manufacturers and water treatment professionals. The potential for reducing the environmental impacts of cooling water treatment programs along with energy savings are now being identified. The chemical mechanism of action for filming amines focuses on preventing fouling from a wide range of factors rather than remediating. These innovative uses of existing technology have now been demonstrated in a range of applications with documented results. In addition to the wide use of filming amines for corrosion control, it has also been demonstrated as a biocide and scale control agent. This paper will discuss data from selected projects along with an overview of the chemistry and treatment program options. Research on relative environmental impacts of filming amines compared to common biocides will also be presented.



Historical Papers

As an offering of the high quality technical content presented at the IWC, please review these historical  papers from IWC-past.  Technical Papers from more recent conferences, and our archived history, can be found here.  Check back often, as content will be updated on a regular basis.

Please click on title to download paper

G.L. Dimotsis, Sybron Chemicals Inc., Birmingham, NJ
F.X. McGarvey, Sybron Chemicals Inc., Birmingham, NJ


IWC 09-36: Steam Generation Using Produced Water: Lessons Learned
Martin R. Godfrey, Nalco Company, Naperville, Illinois
Keywords: Produced Water, OTSG, Evaporator, Steam Generation, SAGD

Prepared Discussion for IWC 09-36:
Discusser: Melonie Myszczyszyn, CNRL Facilities Engineer, Alberta, Canada


IWC 07-24:  Equipment Design Considerations for Lime and Ion Exchange Treatment of Produced Water in Heavy Oil Extraction
Robert Holloway,  Holloway Associates, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada
Gordon Page, Page Technology Ltd., Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Prepared Discussion for IWC 07-24:
John E. Fair, P.Eng., Fair Canada Engineering Ltd., Calgary, Alberta

Author’s Closure for IWC 07-24:
Robert Holloway,  Holloway Associates, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada
Gordon Page, Page Technology Ltd., Calgary, Alberta, Canada