Monday, November 13
Technical Sessions – 8:00-11:00 a.m.
Chemistry Control in Unfired Industrial Boilers
IWC Rep: Colleen Layman, HDR, Inc., Janesville, WI
Session Chair: Kevin Shields, Athlon Solutions, Geismar, LA
Unfired boilers often referred to as waste heat boilers, are commonly used in refining, petrochemical, chemical, and other industrial facilities. These boilers are typically used to cool process streams and, in doing so, generate steam. The papers in this session address recommended chemical treatment programs for these types of boilers and discuss some of the operational challenges associated with unfired boilers through case studies of waste heat generation units operating at ethylene and chemical processing plants.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W06; W09; W13
IWC 17-01: Total Boiler System Chemistry for Iron Oxide Generation (Corrosion) and its Crystal Growth Aggregation, Dehydration and Thermal Aging Characteristics Required For Polymer Treatment
John A. Kelly, Ph.D., United Water Consultants, West Chicago, IL
Iron (hematite), copper, and hardness recovery require certain complexing and chemisorption polymers fed to the feedwater and not the drum. Hematite particles have a maximum of water exchange sites (one per square iron oxide atom maximum) at the feedwater treatment location. Hematite particle formation occurs primarily in the condensate system and hydrates as it initially forms and releases from the metal surface. Growth occurs by coordinated water condensation between particles with dehydration/thermal aging of internal sites. Dispersants adsorb by electrostatic attraction (weak) and desorption occurs easily. Chemisorption by PAA polymer exchanges with particle water coordination sites at the particle surface.
IWC 17-02: Controlling Ethylene Plant Waste Heat Boiler Chemistry During Decoking
David Puchan, , Nalco Champion, An Ecolab Company, Sugar Land, TX ; Tony Banweg, Nalco Water, An Ecolab Company, Naperville, IL
During the Ethylene plant decoking process, WHB steam generator blowdown is greatly increased taking the congruent pH phosphate boiler water chemistry well outside of its normal pH/PO4 control ranges. While operating in this decoking mode, alternative boiler water chemistry control limits are need to assure that corrosion control is being maintained. This paper discusses the process for setting Ethylene plant WHB boiler water control limits during the decoking operation.
IWC 17-03: Heat Exchanger Failures in a Waste Heat Steam Generation System
Edward (Ted) Beardwood, Solenis LLC, Wilmington, DE
Steam generator failures occur for a variety of reasons, and sometimes the root-cause(s) are misdiagnosed, leading to re-occurrence of the failures. Tube failures are not necessarily required to impact the degradation of system performance. The following 2 case histories will illustrate that the actual root cause failures bare no resemblance to the perceived mechanisms initially proposed. A comprehensive, detailed review of operational conditions compared to design criteria must be undertaken. This, in conjunction with a thorough metallurgical examin-ation and complete deposit analysis is critical to understanding the failure mechanism(s) and arriving at the path forward. The remedies provided and their validation are also discussed.
Reverse Osmosis: Optimizing System Design while Minimizing Costs
IWC Rep: Dennis McBride, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO
Session Chair: Lyndsey Wiles, MICRODYN-NADIR US, Inc., Goleta, CA
Discussion Leader: Andrew Erickson, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO
Reverse osmosis (RO) was originally commercialized in the 1960s and has since developed to become a key purification pretreatment technology. Throughout the years, RO has tackled many new applications with different system types and configurations. This year’s RO session takes a closer look at advancements in system design and reduction of operating costs. The session will feature a variety of presentations, including one focused on using a membrane system approach to minimize chemical usage in a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) scenario. Another presentation will discuss minimizing costs by reducing pressure drop with the use of a center port pressure vessel. A third presentation will demonstrate how RO system monitoring can maximize membrane life and minimize operating costs. As this program shows, RO is a critical technology that is continuously improved upon to meet ever-changing industry needs.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W03/A; W09; W11; W18
IWC 17-04: Advanced Micro Filtration and Reverse Osmosis for ELG Compliance and ZLD
Mark Pastore, Sandy Hook, CT and David Martin, Elliston, VA, KLeeNwater, LLC
KLeeNwater, LLC has developed a novel approach to pretreat and concentrate wastewater streams to achieve over 87% recovery rate, using micro-filtration and an advanced high pressure RO system. This treatment approach allows for minimal chemical usage and optimal membrane performance to keep sludge formation and operating costs to a minimum. Two pilot studies were conducted in order to determine the most cost effective treatment program to meet ELG limits for either “treat and discharge” or “zero liquid discharge (ZLD)” scenarios. This paper will discuss the two pilot studies in detail as well as the ELG regulations and how KLeeNwater works to meet the project goals.
Dissusser: Joe Guida, P.E., Fluor, Sugar Land, TX
IWC 17-05: The Center Port RO Vessel – An Underutilized Design Tool
Richard Chmielewski, P.E. and Daniel Gilson, Protec-Arisawa Americas, Vista, CA
RO systems operating at high recovery have been designed using multi-element pressure vessels. The vessels are arranged in a “tapered” array such as 4-2-1. This paper will discuss the use of center port vessel, and will give examples where a center port design is compared to a conventional design. The advantages in terms of reduced operating pressure will be demonstrated. Capital costs will be compared for the two designs and payback periods estimated.
Discusser: Morgan Beveridge, Duke Energy, St. Petersburg, FL
IWC 17-06: Advantages and Disadvantages of Three Different Approaches to Reverse Osmosis Performance
Gary Engelgau and Richard Fruit, Athlon Solutions, Geismar, LA
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a highly effective water purification process. Understanding the condition of the system enables the accurate application of the decision making process to maintain the health of the membranes based on performance levels. Three approaches to performance monitoring will be discussed with advantages and disadvantages for each method. Understanding and implementation of these strategies/tactics will allow owners/operators to optimize their RO system to maximize membrane life, minimize downtime, and reduce operational costs.
Discusser: Ed Greenwood, P.Eng., Amec Foster Wheeler
Trace Contaminants, Technology Driven Advancements
IWC Rep: Ken Dunn, Solenis, Shrewsbury, MA
Session Chair: Peter Meyers, ResinTech, Inc., West Berlin, NJ
Discussion Leader: Steve McSherry, Wigen, Chaska, MN
The ever downward limits for regulated contaminants such as selenium, mercury, and chromium, is driving research and product development for ways to remove trace contaminants to ever lower levels. This session features papers that explore recent research and new products being used for removal of various trace contaminants.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W02/A; W05; W09; W10
IWC 17-07: An Innovative Method for Removing Trace Metals from Industrial Stormwater at a Hard Chrome Plating Facility
Paul Eger, Global Minerals Engineering, Hibbing, MN; Tom Poplawski and John Wagner, Diamond Chrome Plating, Howell, MI; Peggy Jones and Doug Green, American Peat Technology, Aitkin, MN
Stormwater from a plating facility with elevated levels of chromium, cadmium and zinc was treated with a peat sorption media. Treatment began in 2008 and metal removal exceeded 85% for over 3 years. Changes in procedures caused performance and media lifetime to fluctuate until 2015 when system operation was stabilized and performance returned to initial levels. The media has been removing greater than 77% of the metals for more than 2 years.
Discusser: John Schubert, HDR Engineering, Inc., Sarasota, FL
IWC 17-08: Enhanced Coagulation for Total Suspended Solids and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal from the Sabine River at Lake Charles
Americus Mitchell, Fluor, Sugar Land, TX; Anthony Gibson, Sasol, Westlake, LA; Temple Ballard, SUEZ, Richmond, VA
A petrochemical facility in Louisiana requires treatment of 14.5 MGD of water to support new facility operations. Upon, a review of the water cycle in the plant, it was determined that total organic carbon and total suspended solids removal was required. To accomplish this several different laboratory studies where carried out. The studies helped to determine the type of organics and removal method. Presentation of the results and chemical selection will be provided.
Discusser: Bryan Hansen, Burns & McDonnell, Centennial, CO
IWC 17-09: The Impact of Dissolved Organic Carbon on Mercury Removal in FGD Wastewater
Mandi Richardson, Cassandra Hutson, and Gary Blythe, AECOM, Austin, TX; Srinivasan Nanda, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA
This paper will present results from an EPRI funded study to investigate the impact of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on mercury removal in FGD wastewater treatment processes. Current investigations involve isolating organic matter from FGD wastewater samples via soil science separation methodologies to speciate the DOC present. Isolated DOC fractions will be spiked into synthetic FGD wastewater samples to quantify the impacts of specific classes of organics on mercury removal technologies.
Discusser: Dave Riedel, Arcadis, Washington, DC
Advances in On-Line Monitoring Methods for Boiler Water and FGD Wastewater
IWC Rep: Wayne Bernahl, W. Bernahl Enterprises Ltd., Elmhurst, IL
Session Chair: Vickie Olson, Honeywell UOP, Sandy Springs, CA
Discussion Leader: Jamie Fox, Brooks Applied, Bothell, WA
Utility and industrial boilers require optimum water quality to minimize corrosion and scaling. Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) wastewater users are under environmental regulations to provide better wastewater quality. In this session, comparisons of new and developing existing technologies to continuously monitor corrosion, sulfate, chloride, mercury, selenium and arsenic will be discussed to achieve these goals.
Consider Attending: W01/A; W09
IWC 17-10: Evaluation of Online Monitors for Measurement of Treated FGD Wastewater
Mandi Richardson, Cassandra Hutson, and Craig Katkic, AECOM, Austin, TX; Naomi Goodman, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA; Tyler Sullens, Alabama Power
This paper will present information from EPRI-funded projects focused on investigating the state of the science and technology for online water quality monitors. Project activities include a vendor survey to ascertain the technological readiness of instruments, and laboratory and field evaluation of online monitors for their ability to accurately measure arsenic, selenium, and mercury concentrations in treated FGD wastewaters and to operate effectively in a field setting.
Discusser: Joel Citulski, GE Water & Process Technologies, Oakville, ON, Canada
IWC 17-11: Case Study: On-Line Chloride and Sulfate Measurement by Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis
Akash Trivedi, METTLER TOLEDO Thornton, Inc., Billerica, MA
Corrosion due to chloride and sulfate contamination leads to unplanned shutdowns as well as repair and replacement costs in power plants. Hence, monitoring chloride and sulfate at very low ppb limits is specified in various guidelines and warranties. This paper provides a case study on on-line chloride and sulfate measurement using an analyzer based on Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis technology. It provides evaluation data from different power plants and compares that to cation conductivity where available.
Discusser: Chris Baron, ChemTreat, Newark, DE
IWC 17-12: Corrosion Product Transport Monitoring with Non-Contact Nephelometry
Randy Turner, SWAN Analytical USA, Wheeling, IL; Marco Lendi and Manuel Sigrist, SWAN Analytical Instruments, Hinwil, Switzerland
Monitoring corrosion product transport in steam and water cycles is essential to minimize corrosion. Iron corrosion products exist predominately as undissolved suspended particles therefore to measure the total iron a digestion must be performed. Currently there are no total iron analyzers available to continuously monitor total iron therefore surrogate methods such as nephelometry as well as particle monitors have been employed. This paper describes the results of research employing nephelometry to monitor corrosion product transport.
Discusser: Kenneth Kuruc, Hach, Medina, OH